In 1955 and 1956 Thomas Townsend Brown made two trips to Paris where he conducted tests of his electrokinetic apparatus and electrogravitic vacuum chamber tests in collaboration with the French aeronautical company Société National de Construction Aeronautiques du Sud Ouest (S.N.C.A.S.O.) . He was invited there by Jacques Cornillon, the company’s U.S. technical representative. The project was named Project Montgolfier in honor of the two French brother inventors who performed early aircraft flights. The project continued for several years until the company changed ownership resulting in a final report which was written up in 1959.
Details of the Project Montgolfier experiments remained a closely guarded secret for many years until Jacques Cornillon courageously decided to make them public prior to his death in July 2008. Brown’s proposal, the project’s top secret final report, and an assortment of revealing diagrams and photos were posted on the Cornillon website [now defunct] and [were] available for free download. Brown’s proposal is in English, whereas the secret Montgolfier Project final report is in French. An English translation of this 100 page final report is available from the Peeteelab website for a fee of $5.95 Canadian. (Note there is a translation error in the statement of the electrokinetic disc wire size, which is 100 times smaller than quoted. Refer to the original French document for the proper size.)
The flying disc carousel experiment that the Montgolfier Project conducted in 1955 used 2-1/2 foot diameter discs (75 cm dia.) hung from 4 meter tethers suspended from the ends of a 3 meter arm. Based on the description given, this seems to have been almost the same flying disc test that Brown gave to the Navy at Pearl Harbor a year or two earlier.
Based on the angle of the disc suspension cable seen in the photo on the right below, one may estimate that the disc was traveling at a speed of ~8.7 meters per second, or about 20 mph. It would have completed one revolution of its 18 meter course in 2 seconds.
Brown had finished his collaboration with S.N.C.A.S.O. in 1956. From a letter that Mr. Cornillon later wrote to a colleague, we learn that in October 1957 Brown was in the process of test flying 10 foot diameter discs energized at a voltage of 300 kV! Here we see that Brown had followed the plan he had first set out in his 1952 Project Winterhaven proposal which was to eventually test fly a ten foot diameter disc powered by 500 kV (70% more voltage than he used in his 1957 test flight).
Hence we see that by this early date Brown had progressed beyond the toy model stage to flying small scale aircraft. To reach this stage he must have been receiving substantial funding from either the military or from a major corporation. More about Project Winterhaven and Brown’s research may be found in the book Secrets of Antigravity Propulsion.
In addition the Project Montgolfier team constructed a very large vacuum chamber for performing vacuum tests of smaller discs at a pressure of 5 X 10-5 mm Hg; see below.
Left: Vacuum chamber vessel (1.4 m diameter) for conducting electrogravitic tests. Right: Vessel opened to show test rotor rig within. (photos courtesy of J. Cornillon)
In reading the section describing the vacuum chamber results, we learn that when the discs are operated at atmospheric pressure they move in the direction of the leading edge wire regardless of outboard wire polarity. This indicates that in normal atmospheric conditions the discs are propelled forward primarily by unbalanced electrostatic forces due to the prevailing nonlinear field configuration (which causes thrust in the direction of the low field intensity ion cloud regardless of the ion polarity).
On the other hand, the report says that under high vacuum conditions the discs always moved in the direction of the positive pole, regardless of the polarity on the outboard wire. This indicates that in the absence of the unbalanced forces exerted by ion clouds, the discs moved mainly on the basis of the electrogravitic field effect, always toward the positive (negative G) direction.
These vacuum chamber experiments were a decisive milestone in that they demonstrated beyond a doubt that electrogravitic propulsion was a real physical phenomenon. The report concludes saying: “It seems perfectly reasonable to conclude that a concentrated force of some kind accumulates within the presence of a strong dielectric.” (i.e., presumably in the presence of a high-K dielectric.)
From Starburst Forum @ http://starburstfound.org/electrograviticsblog/
The Biefeld–Brown effect is an electrical effect that produces an ionic wind that transfers its momentum to surrounding neutral particles [this is incorrect – the experiment does work in a neutral vacuum, despite protestations presented below: N.I. Ed].
The effect was named by inventor Thomas Townsend Brown who claimed that he did a series of experiments with professor of astronomy Paul Alfred Biefeld, a former teacher of Brown who Brown claimed was as his mentor and co-experimenter at Denison University in Ohio. The phenomenon was also given the name "Electrogravitics" by Brown based on his belief this was an electricity/gravity phenomenon. The effect is more widely referred to as electrohydrodynamics (EHD) or sometimes electro-fluid-dynamics, a counterpart to the well-known magnetohydrodynamics. Extensive research was performed during the 1950s and 1960s on the use of this electric propulsion effect during the publicized era of the United States gravity control propulsion research (1955–1974).
There is renewed focus on Browns effect with the spread in interest in high voltage powered experimental flying devices known as ionocraft or lifters.
The effect is generally believed to rely on corona discharge, which allows air molecules to become ionized near sharp points and edges. Usually, two electrodes are used with a high voltage between them, ranging from a few kilovolts and up to megavolt levels, where one electrode is small or sharp, and the other larger and smoother. The most effective distance between electrodes occurs at an electric potential gradient of about 10 kV/cm, which is just below the nominal breakdown voltage of air between two sharp points, at a current density level usually referred to as the saturated corona current condition. This creates a high field gradient around the smaller, positively charged electrode. Around this electrode, ionization occurs, that is, electrons are stripped from the atoms in the surrounding medium; they are literally pulled right off by the electrode's charge.
This leaves a cloud of positively charged ions in the medium, which are attracted to the negative smooth electrode by Coulomb's Law, where they are neutralized again. This produces an equally scaled opposing force in the lower electrode. This effect can be used for propulsion (see EHD thruster), fluid pumps and recently also in EHD cooling systems. The velocity achievable by such setups is limited by the momentum achievable by the ionized air, which is reduced by ion impact with neutral air. A theoretical derivation of this force has been proposed (see the external links below).
However, this effect works using either polarity for the electrodes: the small or thin electrode can be either positive or negative, and the larger electrode must have the opposite polarity. On many experimental sites it is reported that the thrust effect of a lifter is actually a bit stronger when the small electrode is the positive one. This is possibly an effect of the differences between the ionization energy and electron affinity energy of the constituent parts of air; thus the ease of which ions are created at the 'sharp' electrode.
As air pressure is removed from the system, several effects combine to reduce the force and momentum available to the system. The number of air molecules around the ionizing electrode is reduced, decreasing the quantity of ionized particles. At the same time, the number of impacts between ionized and neutral particles is reduced. Whether this increases or decreases the maximum momentum of the ionized air is not typically measured, although the force acting upon the electrodes reduces, until the glow discharge region is entered. The reduction in force is also a product of the reducing breakdown voltage of air, as a lower potential must be applied between the electrodes, thereby reducing the force dictated by Coulomb's Law.
During the glow discharge region, the air becomes a conductor. Though the applied voltage and current will propagate at nearly the speed of light, the movement of the conductors themselves is almost negligible. This leads to a Coulomb force and change of momentum so small as to be zero.
Below the glow discharge region, the breakdown voltage increases again, whilst the number of potential ions decreases, and the chance of impact lowers. Experiments have been conducted and found to both prove and disprove a force at very low pressure. It is likely that the reason for this is that at very low pressures, only experiments which used very large voltages produced positive results, as a product of a greater chance of ionization of the extremely limited number of available air molecules, and a greater force from each ion from Coulomb's Law; experiments which used lower voltages have a lower chance of ionization and a lower force per ion. Common to positive results is that the force observed is small in comparison to experiments conducted at standard pressure. This is likely[original research?] to be the result of the massively reduced number of ions produced by the experiment, although this could also be interpreted to be a different force entirely.
There have been followups on the claims that this propulsive force can be produced in a full vacuum, meaning it’s an unknown anti-gravity force, not just more well known ion wind, with several researchers (R. L. Talley in a 1990 US Air Force study, NASA scientist Jonathan Campbell in a 2003 experiment, and Martin Tajmar in a 2004 paper) finding that no thrust could be observed in a vacuum, consistent with the phenomenon of ion wind. Campbell pointed out to a Wired magazine reporter that creating a true vacuum similar to space for the test requires tens of thousands of dollars in equipment.
U.S. Patent 3,120,363 — Flying apparatus — G.E. HagenT. T. Brown was granted a number of patents on his discovery:
- GB300311 — A method of and an apparatus or machine for producing force or motion (accepted 1928-11-15)
- U.S. Patent 1,974,483 — Electrostatic motor (1934-09-25)
- U.S. Patent 2,949,550 — Electrokinetic apparatus (1960-08-16)
- U.S. Patent 3,018,394 — Electrokinetic transducer (1962-01-23)
- U.S. Patent 3,022,430 — Electrokinetic generator (1962-02-20)
- U.S. Patent 3,187,206 — Electrokinetic apparatus (1965-06-01)
- U.S. Patent 3,196,296 — Electric generator (1965-07-20)
1. The present day Denison University claims they have no record of such experiments being carried out, or of any association between Brown and Biefeld.Paul Schatzkin, Defying Gravity: The Paraellel Universe of T. Townsend Brown, 2005-2006-2007-2008 - Tanglewood Books, Chapter 13: Notes from the Rabbit Hole #3: "He Made Things Up" (online excerpts)
4. Bahder, TB. "Force on an Asymmetric Capacitor". Retrieved 9 October 2011.
5. Mallove, Eugene (September–October 2002). "The "Lifter" Phenomenon". Infinite Energy.
6. Thompson, Clive (August 2003). "The Antigravity Underground". Wired Magazine.
7. Tajmar, M. (2004). "Biefeld-Brown Effect: Misinterpretation of Corona Wind Phenomena". AIAA Journal 42 (2): 315. Bibcode:2004AIAAJ..42..315T. doi:10.2514/1.9095.
- Tajmar, M. (2004). "Biefeld-Brown Effect: Misinterpretation of Corona Wind Phenomena". AIAA Journal 42 (2): 315. Bibcode:2004AIAAJ..42..315T. doi:10.2514/1.9095.
- Buehler D.R., Journal of Space Mixing, April 2004, vol. 2, pp. 1–22, "Exploratory Research on the Phenomenon of the Movement of High Voltage Capacitors". Space-mixing-theory.com. Retrieved 2010-09-14.
- Vassilatos G. (2000). Lost Science. Adventures Unlimited Press. ISBN 0-932813-75-5.
- Paul A. LaViolette, Ph.D. (2008). Secrets of Antigravity Propulsion: Tesla, UFO's and Classified Aerospace Technology. Rochester, Vermont: Bear & Company. pp. 84–85, 89. ISBN 978-159143078-0.
- Defying Gravity: The Parallel Universe of T. Townsend Brown – authorized biography on T. Townsend Brown
- The Hunt for Zero Point – book by Jane's Aviation editor Nick Cook
-  – Video of the effect
Biefeld Brown effect electrohydrodynamics
- Blaze Labs Research: What is an EHD thruster? — Introduction on EHD thrusters, ionocrafts, lifters and lots of related information
- NASA: Asymmetrical Capacitors for Propulsion (PDF)
- Army Research Laboratory, Thomas B. Bahder:Force on an Asymmetric Capacitor
From Wikipedia @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biefeld%E2%80%93Brown_effect
For more information about electromagnetic propulsion http://nexusilluminati.blogspot.com/search/label/electromagnetic%20propulsion
For more information about the Biefeld-Brown effect see http://nexusilluminati.blogspot.com/search/label/Biefeld%20Brown
- Scroll down through ‘Older Posts’ at the end of each section
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