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Saturday, 14 August 2010

Every black hole may hold a hidden universe - including ours


Every black hole may hold a hidden universe - including ours
Singular New Theories on Singularities and the Nature and Structure of Timespace
File:Black hole quasar NASA.jpg

 

WE COULD be living inside a black hole. This head-spinning idea is one cosmologist's conclusion based on a modification of Einstein's equations of general relativity that changes our picture of what happens at the core of a black hole.

In an analysis of the motion of particles entering a black hole, published in March, Nikodem Poplawski of Indiana University in Bloomington showed that inside each black hole there could exist another universe (Physics Letters B, DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2010.03.029). "Maybe the huge black holes at the centre of the Milky Way and other galaxies are bridges to different universes," Poplawski says. If that is correct - and it's a big "if" - there is nothing to rule out our universe itself being inside a black hole.

In Einstein's general relativity (GR), the insides of black holes are "singularities" - regions where the density of matter reaches infinity. Whether the singularity is an actual point of infinite density or just a mathematical inadequacy of GR is unclear, as the equations of GR break down inside black holes. Either way, the modified version of Einstein's equations used by Poplawski does away with the singularity altogether.

For his analysis, Poplawski turned to a variant of GR called the Einstein-Cartan-Kibble-Sciama (ECKS) theory of gravity. Unlike Einstein's equations, ECKS gravity takes account of the spin or angular momentum of elementary particles. Including the spin of matter makes it possible to calculate a property of the geometry of space-time called torsion.

When the density of matter reaches gargantuan proportions (more than about 1050 kilograms per cubic metre) inside a black hole, torsion manifests itself as a force that counters gravity. This prevents matter compressing indefinitely to reach infinite density, so there is no singularity. Instead, says Poplawski, matter rebounds and starts expanding again.

Now, in what is sure to be a controversial study, Poplawski has applied these ideas to model the behaviour of space-time inside a black hole the instant it starts rebounding (arxiv.org/abs/1007.0587). The scenario resembles what happens when you compress a spring: Poplawski has calculated that gravity initially overcomes torsion's repulsive force and keeps compressing matter, but eventually the repulsive force gets so strong that the matter stops collapsing and rebounds. Poplawski's calculations show that space-time inside the black hole expands to about 1.4 times its smallest size in as little as 10-46 seconds.

This staggeringly fast bounce-back, says Poplawski, could have been what led to the expanding universe we observe today.

How would we know if we are living inside a black hole? Well, a spinning black hole would have imparted some spin to the space-time inside it, and this should show up as a "preferred direction" in our universe, says Poplawski. Such a preferred direction would result in the violation of a property of space-time called Lorentz symmetry, which links space and time. It has been suggested that such a violation could be responsible for the observed oscillations of neutrinos from one type to another (Physical Review D, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.74.105009).

Sadly, there is no point in us looking for other universes inside black holes. As you approach a black hole, the increasing gravitational field makes time tick slower and slower. So, for an external observer, any new universe inside would form only after an infinite amount of time had elapsed.

by Anil Ananthaswamy @ New Scientist - http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20727703.000-every-black-hole-may-hold-a-hidden-universe.html?DCMP=OTC-rss&nsref=physics-math

Our Universe at Home Within a Larger Universe?

Einstein-Rosen bridges like the one visualized above have never been observed in nature, but they provide theoretical physicists and cosmologists with solutions in general relativity by combining models of black holes and white holes. (Credit: Image courtesy of Indiana University)

Could our universe be located within the interior of a wormhole which itself is part of a black hole that lies within a much larger universe?
Such a scenario in which the universe is born from inside a wormhole (also called an Einstein-Rosen Bridge) is suggested in a paper from Indiana University theoretical physicist Nikodem Poplawski in Physics Letters B.
Poplawski takes advantage of the Euclidean-based coordinate system called isotropic coordinates to describe the gravitational field of a black hole and to model the radial geodesic motion of a massive particle into a black hole.
In studying the radial motion through the event horizon (a black hole's boundary) of two different types of black holes -- Schwarzschild and Einstein-Rosen, both of which are mathematically legitimate solutions of general relativity -- Poplawski admits that only experiment or observation can reveal the motion of a particle falling into an actual black hole. But he also notes that since observers can only see the outside of the black hole, the interior cannot be observed unless an observer enters or resides within.
"This condition would be satisfied if our universe were the interior of a black hole existing in a bigger universe," he said. "Because Einstein's general theory of relativity does not choose a time orientation, if a black hole can form from the gravitational collapse of matter through an event horizon in the future then the reverse process is also possible. Such a process would describe an exploding white hole: matter emerging from an event horizon in the past, like the expanding universe."
A white hole is connected to a black hole by an Einstein-Rosen bridge (wormhole) and is hypothetically the time reversal of a black hole. Poplawski's paper suggests that all astrophysical black holes, not just Schwarzschild and Einstein-Rosen black holes, may have Einstein-Rosen bridges, each with a new universe inside that formed simultaneously with the black hole.
"From that it follows that our universe could have itself formed from inside a black hole existing inside another universe," he said.
By continuing to study the gravitational collapse of a sphere of dust in isotropic coordinates, and by applying the current research to other types of black holes, views where the universe is born from the interior of an Einstein-Rosen black hole could avoid problems seen by scientists with the Big Bang theory and the black hole information loss problem which claims all information about matter is lost as it goes over the event horizon (in turn defying the laws of quantum physics).
This model in isotropic coordinates of the universe as a black hole could explain the origin of cosmic inflation, Poplawski theorizes.
Poplawski is a research associate in the IU Department of Physics. He holds an M.S. and a Ph.D. in physics from Indiana University and a M.S. in astronomy from the University of Warsaw, Poland.

Nassim Haramein’s Universal Model Receives One of its Largest Confirmations
For more than two decades Nassim Haramein has been claiming that black holes are the source of creation, not the result of it. His model permitted him to predict that black holes would be found at the center of all galactic formations.
In many cases Haramein produced controversy by stating that black holes were most likely present prior to galactic formation, or even star formation - and that even our own sun and the atomic structure that makes up our reality is centered around black hole dynamics, or what he calls the spin horizon of a white whole/black whole.
Eventually, telescopic evidence supported the fact that all observed galaxies seem to be centered around super-massive black holes as Haramein predicted. Initially astrophysicists attempted to explain the presence of these black holes by describing the evolution of galaxies as gathering mass until black holes form at their center, but further observation demanded that the galactic central black hole co-evolved with the galactic bulge plasma dynamics and the galactic arms.
Now, as recently reported at the American Astronomical Society, a study using the Very Large Array radio telescope in New Mexico and the French Plateau de Bure Interferometer has enabled astronomers to peer within a billion years of the Big Bang and found evidence that black holes were here first. This is a fundamental confirmation of Haramein’s theory described in his papers as a universe composed of different scale black holes from universal size to atomic size.
This may be one of the most exciting confirmations as yet, as it leads directly to a continuous creation process where our universal black hole produces what we call super-massive black holes, which produce smaller ones we call stars, which in turn produce smaller ones we call atoms.
 In Haramein’s model, black holes are produced by density gradients in the geometry of spacetime itself, which produce spacetime torque, in turn curling the manifold, like water going down the drain or the slight gradient in air density that produces hurricanes and tornadoes. This results in the extraction of a percentage of the energy available in the vacuum structure, like the air coming up the drain, producing what we experience as mass and electromagnetic radiation (a layman’s explanation can be found in What is the Origin of Spin? – See Below). In various sections of his scientific papers (given below), Haramein described these processes and a scaling law is given to define the scale relationships of this creation dynamics. Further, Haramein gives a calculation in his Scale Unification – A Universal Scaling Law For Organized Matter paper (see equation #4 through #16) where he demonstrates that the nuclei of atoms can be described as a mini black holes, replacing the need for an ad hoc strong force with no source of energy to describe its strength with the gravitational force of a mini black hole extracting energy from the vacuum.
In the same conference, Dr. Elizabeth Humphreys reported that stars have been caught in the act of being born extremely close to the super-massive black hole near the Milky Way core. This contradicts the standard model that would predict that these stars would get ripped apart by the strong tidal gravity produced by the nearby black hole. It is clear that the mechanism that allows such young stars to be present so close to a super-massive black hole is not clearly understood by the standard model but is predicted by the continuous black hole creation model of Haramein’s theory.
Stars could only exist in the vicinity of such tidal gravity if they were much more massive than previously expected, which may be the result of their harboring a black hole themselves. Of course it’s implied that all stars are born out of black holes, and are themselves smaller black holes, including our sun. In Section 4 of the Scale Unification paper, Haramein and his colleagues give powerful evidence of such a black hole at the center of our Sun. This is as well described in a section of the special features of the “Crossing the Event Horizon: Rise to the Equation” DVD set.
 

'Breaking News on the Event Horizon Scale Unification - A Universal Scaling Law for Organised Matter

Mr. Haramein has finally completed what may be one of the most important calculations to describe our world from universal size to atomic and subatomic particles. The paper entitled “Scale Unification - A Universal Scaling Law for Organized Matter” was recently published in a preprint CD format (2008) as a result of the proceedings of a physics conference - the Unified Theories Conference in Budapest, Hungary in 2006.

The paper reveals that a scaling law can be written to demonstrate that scales ranging from the universal structure we live in, to the atom and subatomic particles that make up our world, are able to be described under the conditions of a black hole. Some of the most important calculations are found between equations 4 and 18 which are simple equations describing the nuclei of the atom (the proton) interacting with the vacuum structure and obeying the conditions necessary to be described as a black hole.

Remarkably, the resulting circular velocity of such a system in Hertz yields the gamma ray emissions typically associated with atomic decay. This is a very exciting result, as in this case the atom is described in a completely classical way (or semi-classical) with very little quantum physics involved. This new description of our world marks a deeper understanding of our relationship to the scaling of event horizons from infinitely large to infinitely small, and although the data point for the biological resolution is not apparent on the graph, it is mentioned in the caption of Figure 2a. Here we show that the microtubules structure of the cellular level bisects the graph almost at its exact middle, placing biological systems, including us, as one of the event horizons connecting worlds.

Later in the paper we demonstrate that a “spin horizon” can be described to both accommodate the galactic center black holes and the scale to the dynamics of the core of our Sun and its plasma structure. This implies that the central black holes of galaxies are the driving force producing the galactic disc and its halo, and that that very same force most likely produces the high energy physics we observe in our own Sun. This “spin horizon” now describes our world as being white hole/black hole structures at all scales, or what Haramein has coined the “white / black whole.”

'In astrophysics, black holes have been ubiquitously confirmed from large scale super-giants such as quasars and galactic centers to smaller stellar size black hole systems. These new discoveries represent a long term progress to confirm the 1916 Schwarzschild solution to Einstein’s field equations. The observed black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy was first discovered by its gravitational influence on nearby stars. So far, black holes seem to have been found at the center of all galaxies that have been carefully examined [1]. Now, quasars and globular clusters, have been found to host large black holes and stellar black holes are well documented. 

In this paper we develop a scaling law utilizing the Schwarzschild condition as well as discuss charge and rotation within a modified Kerr-Newman metric (the Haramein-Rauscher solution involving torque and Coriolis effects in the field equations [2]) for cosmological, galactic, stellar and micro physical black holes. It is important to note that all observed objects, from macro to micro, are predominantly x-ray emitters, which is typical of black hole horizons. At the horizon the gravitational force balances the electromagnetic radiation, a state previously thought to be only present at cosmogenesis, which implies a continuous creation model.'...


Scale Unification and the Origin of Spin


What is the origin of the rotation or spin of all objects from galaxies, suns and planets to atoms and subatomic particles?

Ask the question, and you may get the answer that it originates at the big bang as an initial impulse (moment) and that it has been spinning since then in a frictionless environment. From this response, now you may have two additional questions: is a frictionless environment a good representation of our observation, and where did the energy come from initially?

To the first one, our universe is comprised of not only space, but matter/energy all of which is interacting in plasma dynamics of galaxies, solar systems (solar winds), and so on. Even in the intergalactic vacuum, which is centimeters apart. All of this stuff interacting does not make for an ideal frictionless environment. In fact, this idealization further standardizes the spinning object as a solid with no viscosity difference of spin.

A good experiment that you can per for m is to boil an egg and after the egg is completely cooled, try to spin it on your desk. It will spin in a uniform manner and you can imagine that if it was in a frictionless environment it could spin forever. Now perform the same experiment with a non-boiled egg; you will observe that the egg will slow down rapidly due to its viscous core.

Now envision the viscous magma inside our planet. It certainly is not spinning in a frictionless environment. The center is thought to act as a dynamo to generate our magnetic field; however, it takes torque to spin the dynamo! Currently there are elaborate thermal and magnetic models that attempt to explain the inner spin of the core of our planet; however, none explain where the impulse moment initially comes from. Where is the force coming from?

The same dilemma applies for the spin of all objects: our sun, galaxies, atoms, subatomic particles, and so on, which brings us back to the second part of our question above concerning the origin of the energy of spin. The origin of the energy is unknown, and at the quantum level of subatomic particles causation is not addressed!


Yet, without spin/rotation none of reality can come to exist. All things spin! Even things that appear not to! You may say, “a tree doesn’t spin”, but in fact every atom on that tree spins, and that tree is on a planet that is spinning, and this planet is in a solar system that is spinning inside a galactic disk and so on. So we could say that spin is fundamental to creation, and objects that appear to be inanimate exist solely because spinning atoms within allow the objects to radiate, and hence, appear in our reality. So an important endeavor of physics would be to find the fundamental forces necessary to generate spin since, if those were known, we would ultimately know the foundations of reality. That is a valuable thing to know - never mind the fact that it could provide very important clues about energy and gravity, which can have huge impacts on our current state of technology and ecology. Yet, in all of the intricacies of both quantum theory and relativistic equations (and I assure you that these complexities are not trivial), no equations, no concepts, no fundamental theories have to date been postulated to describe the origin of spin.

This deficiency in our understanding of the dynamics of spin/rotation is what lead prominent Nobel-prize laureate C.N. Yang (of the famous Yang-Mills equation) to comment that, “Einstein’s general relativity theory, though profoundly beautiful, is likely to be amended…” and that amendment, “somehow entangles spin and rotation.” Although Dr. Rauscher and I were unaware of Dr. Yang’s most accurate statement, we believe that our most recently completed paper entitled, “The Origin of Spin: A Consideration of Torque and Coriolis Forces in Einstein’s Field Equations and Grand Unification Theory” addresses the same issue.

As you can deduce from the title, we imbued Einsteinian spacetime with a torque and Coriolis term that becomes the cause and origin of all spins. We then solved the equation and related the solution to a modified GUT Theory (Grand Unification Theory) for the electromagnetic and subatomic particle scale of reality. In doing so we have arrived at a true Unification view, for we have bridged the macro and the micro. Sure, there is much more math to be worked out; however, this we believe becomes a landmark foundation from which a new level of physics can be written that generates a more accurate and complete picture of not only galactic formations and solar system structures, but planetary plasma mechanics and atomic and subatomic dynamics.

Although the math involved may seem quite complex, the concepts are quite simple. Einstein, with his beautiful field equations, showed that gravity is not a force resulting from objects themselves (as in Newtonian views), but that gravity is a force resulting from the curvature of spacetime in the presence of matter/energy.

Imagine a ball placed in the center of a flexible surface such as a trampoline. The ball would curve the surface of the trampoline (spacetime) around it so that any other ball on the surface of that trampoline would be attracted to it. That is the standard simplified view of Einstein’s Field Equations describing gravity. Those field equations have their basis in earlier equations that are known as the LaPlace-Poisson Equations, which describe gradients (in this case, gradient densities), making spacetime curve more or less depending on the density/mass o f the object.

Now what we have done is that we have added a term to Einstein’s equations which accounts for a fundamental force in spacetime generating torque, which is forcing t the space time manifold to spin just as the engine of your car must apply the force of torque to the wheels of your car in order for them to rotate. One may ask, “But where is the spacetime torque coming from?” i.e. “Where is the engine?” The answer is, just as we think of the spacetime curvature generating gravity as a density increase in the presence of matter energy, we can think of the torque force of the curvature of space as increasing as density increases. Thus, the torque comes from a change in density (or gradient) in the geometry of spacetime.

To give you a mental picture, replace the surface of the trampoline we were discussing earlier with the surface tension of water as it goes down the drain of your bathtub. The change of density between the air in the drain of your tub and the water makes the water surface curve towards the drain, but significantly, the surface is no longer a smooth curve (as in the trampoline example ), but now it curls as the water goes down and as the air spins out.

Another way to look at this is to analyze the dynamics of weather patterns on Earth (note that in this example the same could be said for water currents). Take, for example, a hurricane. As a result of a relatively small difference in density/temperature in the atmosphere, immense currents gather large quantities (tons and tons) of water orbiting in a highly defined structure sometimes hundreds of kilometers wide, resulting in huge energy events that include enormous electromagnetic discharges, high velocity winds, and sometimes funnel tornadoes.

Now compare those dynamics to the ones of spiral arm galaxies with their spiraling galactic discs. The similarities are obvious, however in our equation the change in density is not in the air of a planet, but in the plasma gases of our universe. For instance, recall that the density of the relative vacuum between galaxies, although being the largest vacuum observed and containing millions of times more vacuum than that of our solar system, has its atoms only a few centimeters apart. Yet the vacuum density inside our galaxy is much greater. The difference in densities in this case, just as with the differences in densities in air currents o f our
atmosphere creating hurricanes, is what generates spacetime torquing matter/energy, and spinning it into the observed topology of a galactic disc with it s galactic halos and galactic polar jets.

Further, as in the case for a hurricane, Coriolis forces dictate very specific structures that are related to a torus (donut structure) or more specifically to a dual torus bubble, because the Coriolis forces manifest in two opposite rotational patterns (go to http://www.theresonanceproject.org/research/torus.htm to view the dual torus animation).

We named this amendment to Einstein’s Field Equations the Haramein-Rauscher solution. We believe that it will more accurately predict the observed dynamics of our universe, including its galactic clusters, galactic structures and planetary plasma dynamics. This solution may as well be able to describe galactic structures and universal behavior without the need for exotic inclusions such as dark matter and dark energy.

Another interesting result fro m this amendment is that we have found a topological (geometric) relationship between the dual torus spacetime manifold of our solution and the structure of subatomic particles described by group theoretical models, typically used to describe subatomic particle interactions. The relationship involves a very specific geometric structure called a cubeoctahedron, or in other cases a vector equilibrium, which can be constructed from eight (edge-bounded tetrahedrons generating twelve (12) radiating vector s and twenty-four (24) edge vectors.

This group theoretical model relationship then allows us to unify the atomic scale forces to the macro cosmological scale objects, and thus generate a Unified Field Theory. Further more, the twelve radiating topological cubeoctahedral vectors generating a dual torus field are the base vectors o f a 3D fractal structure I had discovered many years ago and concluded to be the foundation geometry of creation at all scales.
3D Graphics and Renderings
This 64 tetrahedron topological structure, based on a fractal growth of cubeoctahedrons or vector equilibriums, is fundamental to Haramein's Unification Theory. Please choose one of these different renderings to explore. Then left click and drag to rotate the scene, right click and drag to zoom in / out or middle click ( or left and right simultaneously) to pan. Enjoy!




If you do not see a 3D interactive geometry after you have clicked on
one of the images above you need to download the plug-in.

 You could imagine the same dual torus bubble and cubeoctahedron occurring at all scales, driven by the torque forces of spacetime as the density increases towards the microscopic scale of the atom, and along the way, spinning everything into existence.

In a work-in-progress, we are writing a balance equation between the gravitational torque forces of spacetime and the electromagnetic repulsive forces. In this view, then, the Universe seems to be spinning in perpetual motion in a frictionless environment only due to the exchange between the torque o f spacetime and the electromagnetic entropy, where the torque overcomes the shearing friction dynamics to generate billions of years of rotation in a seemingly frictionless manner at all scales.

This brings us to a deeper view of black hole dynamics where the black holes are no longer only absorbing material/information, but radiating this information back out in the form of electromagnetic radiation, and the feedback between the two generates the topology of the dual torus structure of the Haramein-Rauscher solution driven by spacetime.  Now the black hole is no longer black since its exterior event horizon radiates, which is what I have been calling the white hole portion.  Here the black hole/white hole are concentric to each other, where the black hole is inside and the white hole is concentrically structured outside and activates the plasma dynamics and Coriolis forces of the ergosphere of the black hole , which I coined the black -white whole.

Dr. Stephen Hawking, who for nearly thirty years insisted that black holes could not radiate information, in a recent announcement has now made a complete 180 degree turn in his views (much to his credit), predicting that black holes may be able to radiate information.  This has been a fundamental contingency of this unification view for almost twenty years, and I am excited to see these views now being embraced by others.

Interestingly, I arrived to these conclusions long before confirming these relationships with standard mathematics. I did so by using pure logic, a keen observation of nature and geometric extrapolations, some resulting from in-depth studies of ancient symbols and esoteric schools of thought, such as the Pythagorian schools and ancient Hebraic and Egyptian texts. In many respects, I unknowingly followed a similar path of investigation as Sir Isaac Newton, who had spent a significant part of his adult life deeply immersed in the study of ancient texts and monuments before arriving at his fundamental laws of nature. But I am getting ahead of myself this is all for a future article, on the seemingly ancient profound understandings of the geometry of nature to what that means in our technological modern era.


- Nassim Haramein, Michael Hyson, E. A. Rauscher
http://www.theresonanceproject.org/pdf/scalinglaw_paper.pdf

 Xtra Images - http://www.proetcontra.com/2009/03/25/white-whole-black-whole-structures/
http://soddenguru.livejournal.com/1379.html

For further enlightenment see –

The Her(m)etic Hermit - http://hermetic.blog.com


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