"All the world's a stage we pass through." - R. Ayana

Thursday, February 11, 2010

Brown's Gas: Fuel from Water

Brown's Gas: Fuel from Water


http://www.runyourcaronwaterfyi.com/images/yull-brown.jpg

The Late Yull Brown
In his book The Mysterious Island (1874) Jules Verne  wrote the following:   

"Water decomposed into its primitive elements ( Hydrogen and Oxygen), and decomposed doubtless by electricity, which will then have become a powerful and manageable force. Yes, my friends, I believe that water will one day be employed as a fuel".  

Plasma orbital expansion theory for Brown's gas -  New

Chris Eckman of Idaho State University presents an overview of his theory of how Brown's gas is electrical in nature.  This precocious undergrad proposes a new isomer of water, something that would probably land a Nobel prize on more seasoned academics.

By Sterling D. Allan & Chris Eckman, Idaho State University, Nov. 2009
Pure Energy Systems  

 

In my opinion, Brown’s gas is one of the most interesting physical science fields.

I’ve played with brown’s gas before, so I can speak from first-hand experience to vouch for what has been demonstrated in numerous YouTube videos and even some news reports. Simply put, Brown’s gas is the hydrogen-oxygen gas that comes from electrolysis that ducts the gases together, not separated. You can wave a Brown’s gas torch across your skin without burning it, and then take that same torch with the same setting and oxidize (melt) Tungsten, something that requires heat in the range of 6,000 ºF.  The action is not coming from the heat of the flame but from something else that is going on. The list of unusual attributes of Brown's gas is quite long.

I am baffled as to why mainstream academia has overlooked and marginalized it for so long. I would think they would be curious and investigate these astonishing attributes to help speed its practical implementation.
 

http://img.youtube.com/vi/v3zL95f9Z04/0.jpg    
            Chris Eckman, Idaho State University 2009 (above)


http://go2alam.files.wordpress.com/2008/07/diagram-brown-gas.jpg

Chris Eckman, an undergraduate student at Idaho State University, is a newcomer on the scene with the courage to pursue this science despite its political baggage. He has been doing some groundbreaking analysis and has been coming up with theoretical models to explain the phenomenon. People get Nobel prizes for documenting the kind of things he’s doing.

He recently submitted a paper describing these results and his theoretical models to a peer reviewed journal. It will include a complete math proof and physical proof.

Could it be that the politics of the field have kept this fairly straight-forward science hidden (no seasoned researchers dare look lest they jeopardize their career by the stigma of pursuing crackpot science), so that now a mere undergraduate student can waltz in an walk away with a discovery that could have been snatched decades ago by more "prestigious" professors?

I have to grin at the prospect.

Here is a synopsis he sent me recently when I was asking him about the electrical properties of Brown’s gas. 

[In] the Browns Gas water plasma model, the water molecule goes from the tetrahedral and bent (4 electron pairs, 2 being used and 2 not being used) to the trigonal bipyramidal (5 electron pairs, 2 being used and 3 not being used), this causes the shape change.

http://pesn.com/2009/11/23/9501587_ChrisEckman_BrownsGas_model/Plasma_Orbital_Expansion_Theory_Chris_Eckman_500.jpg

Because water normally is within the N2 shell, it needs a lot of energy to move up and would rather break down into Hydrogen and Oxygen then move up. However Browns Gas may be moving up a level and storing the extra electrons in the N=3 orbital. In other words, the original water molecules exist in a sp3 hybridized state whereas the “linear” molecule would have to use the d subshell of the n = 3 shell to become a sp3d hybrid state that allows for the expansion for the extra electrons. Upon relaxation it would resume its original state reclaiming its polarity and attraction to other water molecules.

The new water molecule will form what is called "Non-equilibrium plasma" or "cold plasma” (it can be also called isomers) where the electrons have high energies but the molecules or atom that hold the extra electrons are relatively unenergetic and heat is produced by the electrical resistance of the target material from the extra electrons, while the molecule or atoms releasing these electrons remains relatively cool.

The energy produced in the substrate material is due to electrons that scatter at point of contact, producing heat based upon the melting or vapor point of the material, electrical conductivity, density and thermal capacity of the material (how much heat it will absorb). This would be the (what I would call the Semi Stable Species, it will ether break down or revert back to water with some time) stable species that is formed in Brown's gas that will react with the substrate material.

By the way I now have the physical/mathematical proof I need to show that this is a true structure of water (wether or not it is the main component of Browns gas I can not say for sure, but I would place money on it), but waiting for it to be published (the proof part to be published). 


Chris Eckman also wrote:  

I had done a laboratory gas spectrometer analysis on the gas produced by BG torch and Tungsten. It proved that about 46% of the gas was tungsten dioxide, 11% was tungsten (VI) oxide (trioxide) and the rest was about 43% straight tungsten metal.

I found that electricity will commonly make tungsten dioxide.

Normally, "WO2 is prepared by reduction of WO3 with tungsten powder over the course of 40 hours at 900 °C" (my Chemistry book), it also has a super high electrical conductivity and it showing promise for superconducting materials at high temps. The one that nature prefers is WO3.

I tried to replicate it using Acetylene Torch and nothing similar happened. We had some amounts of WO3 -- that was expected -- but negligible amounts of WO2. This shows that BG burned it differently then an Acetylene Torch.

I also tried to make it [tungsten dioxide] using electricity and found that I had similar ratios (within 12% of BG's numbers). Straight tungsten oxide (only 1 oxygen) is not common and was negligible < 0.001% in the results. Also small amounts of water, and even smaller amounts of H2 and O2 were found. There was also a small "blip" that no one really knew what it was, but this was considered negligible as well.

[All this] helps confirm electrical presence.
 
Chris also sent me a Chemistry paper he wrote last year "that started it all", with the caveat that I let people know that some of his thinking has changed since then. 


Here's his account of the history of his involvement in the science.  
One of the professors from the school looked through [the paper] and made me an offer to do work study for him to study this gas.  I accepted and worked for a year, tinkering with the gas.

On the way I found new info on the gas, and we (my professor and I and one other) found funding to go to the "big boys" of research at Idaho National Labs.  There we had leaps and bounds when it came to research.  The information we found there was huge, even compared to when I worked for a year!  That is when we published the first paper (similar to the
power point).

We then did data analysis (us two undergrads), and we really had been swamped.  We found a grad student to help, then we got a little better results (in our math, really complex stuff).  That is when we applied for finding a new isomer of water.  We have been trying to publish the discovery ever since.

We have an X ray picture of the molecule and some extremely promising mathematics to prove it's existence, but it seem to be more a political battle then that of data. It would seem the "poor undergrad" who has a GPA of 3.5 (B+) is not smart enough to "find such a discovery".  (By what I've been told it is Nobel prize worthy.  People get the Nobel prize in Chemistry for the discovery of new molecules and isomers and stuff like that every year).

Shortly after that (~3 months ago), funding ran out and we've been looking for it since. It is really hard to publish a new molecule or isomer or any new discovery.  I get 10+ emails a day from people that agree and disagree with my theory -- both people who swear by it and others that swear at it -- both with Ph.D.s and high school drop outs contact me.  Of course the Ph.D.s have my attention a bunch more then the high school dropouts.

Well anyway, it is safer to keep results under raps until it is out [peer-review published].  I don't want some company saying they have my results.  I've even brought on a lawyer on this to help in all the legal stuff. 
 
Chris postulates that the gas is a function of a high-energy-state form of water that moves it from a dipole configuration to a linear configuration with two extra electrons, which then interact electrically with the substrate, resulting in the very unusual effects observed, such as sublimating Tungsten while not burning your hand if you wave the torch across it. 

Above information with special thanks! to Chris Eckman, University of Idaho & Sterling D. Allan. Peswiki.com 

Other (and older)  explanations:  
 
Brown’s Gas is common ducted oxyhydrogen; oxyhydrogen produced in a common ducted electrolyzer. From a practical level, what can visually observed, Brown’s Gas is indistinguishable from oxyhydrogen. The only sensory distinction, that can be observed, is the apparent temperature of the Brown’s Gas flame as compared to that of oxyhydrogen. Considering this obvious and duplicable phenomena, common ducted oxyhydrogen reasonably shares the vast majority of properties with oxyhydrogen, but possesses several distinctions.     

Oxyhydrogen is (sometimes) produced in an independently ducted electrolyzer (substantially separate anodes and cathodes). It can also be produced using bottle (tanked) hydrogen and oxygen. Any electrolyzer that is designed according to common ducted parameters will not produce pure oxyhydrogen. 

The results of common ducted electrolysis is the formation of small quantities of hydrogen and oxygen molecular formations other than solely diatomic structures; oxyhydrogen, according to strict chemical stoichiometry, is a mixture of ONLY diatomic hydrogen and diatomic oxygen. Common ducted oxyhydrogen (Brown’s Gas), on the other hand, contains predominantly H2 and O2, but a variety of other viable molecular formations that account for the substantial temperature differential between the two flames; a higher entropy content is a reasonable means of accounting for this property. Entropy is a parameter of a substance quantitative of the degree of molecular disorder. Considering that Entropy times (*/x/multiplied) with the temperature of the substance yield a unit of energy other than solely the direct enthalpy content. 

It is theorized that the entropy content of Brown’s Gas is greater than that of pure oxyhydrogen; given the inversely proportional relationship between entropy and temperature, as entropy increase the temperature of the substance must decrease to be consistent with the 1’st Law of Thermodynamics (Conservation of Energy). Thus the increased entropy of Brown’s Gas pushed the flame temperature substantially down; this can be revered saying that the observed, relatively low, temperature of the Brown’s Gas flame can be accounted for by an substantial increase in entropy.


Browns Gas Definition - Peswiki
Browns Gas Definition - Wikipedia
Column about Brown's Gas by BEST korea  
HHO Definition - Wikipedia
Oxyhydrogen Definition - Wikipedia
Sept. 2009 - George Wiseman Brown's Gas interview (peswiki) 

Practical Distinction

Parallel cell electrolyzers cannot manage power the same was as a common ducted electrolyzer. By arranging cells in parallel the voltage across each cell will be constant, but the current delivered to each dell will be shared amongst all existing cells. This means that to mitigate the energy consumed, by each cell, the production rate must be sacrificed.  Brown’s Gas production, due to the design of the electrolyzer, is increasingly efficient as compared to independently ducted electrolysis. 

A common ducted electrolyzer, utilizing series cell parallel plate design, establishes a superior level of surface area, and an inherent ability to optimize the voltage magnitude per cell. In combination with capacitive amperage limiting, also known as a clipping circuit, the amount of voltage and current, per cell, is completely customizable. The series cell parallel plate electrolyzer can specify the amount of energy consumed, and allows for overwhelmingly superior power management, thus leading to an increase in efficiency. 
Hydrogen Fuel Analysis

In chemistry, oxygen does not contribute energy to chemical reactions, and its main role is the facilitation of combustion. Considering this, Oxy-Hydrogen, Brown’s Gas, and Pure Hydrogen all have the exact same energy content on a mole per mole basis. Given the 1’st and 2
nd laws of electrolysis, energy in is always greater than energy out, why use one Hydrogen Fuel over another?

Pure Hydrogen 

The beauty of pure hydrogen is that it can be substantially pressurized to over ten thousand [10,000] psi, which makes it a suitable fuel for tanking, storage, and distribution. Carbon nano-tube based materials, and potentially high strength alloys, appear to be the future of tanking.

Oxy-Hydrogen  

Oxy-Hydrogen can be produced from tanked hydrogen and oxygen gases for torch application. Doing so will allow for the maximum potential of efficient energy recovery from the hydrogen. The more accurate the 2:1 ratio of hydrogen versus oxygen respectively, the more efficient the combustion of the hydrogen and oxygen into water and energy.

Brown’s Gas  

Brown’s Gas can only be produced in a common ducted electrolyzer. The most efficient common ducted electrolyzer design is series cell parallel plate. By not separating the product hydrogen and oxygen gases efficiency is improved; when hydrogen is in the presence of oxygen, immediately after electrolytic production, the formation of diatomic hydrogen and oxygen is preceded by the formation of hydrogen and oxygen molecular structures of increased energy content. This accounts for the increasingly efficient electrolytic reaction observed in series cell common ducted electrolyzers.

Brown’s Gas cannot be stored under the viably high pressures that are necessary for distribution. Brown’s Gas is optimally consumed immediately after production. Considering the latter two parameters Brown’s Gas is inherently an on-demand Hydrogen Fuel that is only produced as needed.

" Hydrogen-on-demand does not need costly infrastructure and makes cars safer "

Hydrogen-on-demand would not only remove the need for costly hydrogen pipelines and distribution infrastructure, it would also make hydrogen vehicles safer. "The theoretical advantage of on-board generation is that you don't have to muck about with hydrogen storage," says Mike Millikin, who monitors developments in alternative fuels for the Green Car Congress website. A car that doesn't need to carry tanks of flammable, volatile liquid or compressed gas would be much less vulnerable in an accident. "It also potentially offsets the requirements for building up a massive hydrogen production and distribution infrastructure," Millikin says.
Browns gas definition by:  Merriam-Webster's Open Dictionary:
  

Search results for 'brownsgas':

brownsgas (noun) : brownsgas/browns-gas refers to a process discovered by a Bulgarian born Dr. Yule Brown a heavy water phycist where water can be hydrogen/oxygen split up using low voltage causing it to become 66.6 percent hydrogen to 33.3 percent oxygen and then it can be returned back to being water by using the application of low voltage again. 


Brownsgas someday will replace petroleum fuel as a free clean energy source. A discovery that is considered to be a future replacement for petroleum fuels, that can also be used to weld anything to anything and transmute nuclear waste into becoming non nuclear. —WillPWilson, The Discovery of Atomic Chemistry, 1993 based on finding verified by more the forty University 
Physics Departments
 

Submitted by: WillPWilson from Washington on Nov. 11, 2005 08:17
Theory by researcher mr. Rome, may 2008:
" Here is a logical explanation of the reaction process in making brown's gas. Notice how, if no excess energy is used, that the atoms begin monatomic (within the molecule), they continue this way after disoassociation (explaining it's unique properties unlike diatomic H and O), and finally they are inputted into the final reaction, which in this specific case, calls for monatomic forms of the atoms in order to create and complete the molecule (H20) in the simplest & most efficient reaction, leaving out any wasteful steps such as using energy to create diatomic elements only to spend more energy breaking them up soon after to get back to the desired atomic forms.  

All of this energy preparing H2 and O2 is the difference between normal H burning and browns gas consumption.  BG begins and remains at the simplest state which leaves us more harness able energy than it's counterpart, normal H2 and O2 that costs energy just to be prepared for the final reaction ".  






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1 comment:

  1. Hallo,
    Braungas kann man auch ohne Elektrolyse herstellen , in unbegrensten Mengen .
    Udo Weber weud-@t-online.de

    ReplyDelete

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