"All the world's a stage we pass through." - R. Ayana

Tuesday, September 6, 2011

The Virus Engineers: AIDS – The Real Story Part 3

The Virus Engineers
 AIDS – The Real Story – Section 2 
    Part 3 – Virus Creation & Vaccines

Dr Robert Gallo

There  were no known human retroviruses until Dr Robert Gallo isolated HTLV-1 (a human leukaemia retrovirus) in 1978. Informed readers will have to decide whether it is a coincidence that AIDS (HIV-1) also appeared in Africa and the West in that year.
 
Gallo is credited with having discovered HIV – the retrovirus associated with AIDS - a few years later, but his ‘credit’ for the discovery was the result of legal manoeuvring to gain control of patents for lucrative HIV tests. It has been proven (and accepted) that ‘his’ strains of HIV had somehow been borrowed from a French lab.  
 
            In 1971 Paul Berg began the age of recombinant DNA. Working with e. coli, a common human intestinal organism, Berg demonstrated viral genetic engineering for the first time.
 
           Gallo and M. G. Sarndharan were working under US Public Health Service (USPHS) contract at the NCI/NIH (National Cancer Institutes/National Institutes of Health) on leukaemic human T-cells in the early 1970s. In 1972 they reported finding reverse transcriptase (the enzyme in the core of HIV) in the blood lymphocytes (T-cells) of human patients. The new enzyme had characteristics “previously shown only for (reverse transcriptase) of RNA tumour viruses.”i [i] The five-man team, including Gallo, went on to experiment with this human-derived reverse transcriptase, combining it with RNA from a virus affecting birds called Avian Myoblastosis Virus (AMV).ii [ii]
 
            The same year a group at the University of California, funded by the USPHS, NIH and the Atomic Energy Commission (?) discovered two new RNA viruses in ‘sub-human primate tumours’ that they classified as oncornaviruses (cancer causing RNA viruses).
 
            The same laboratory was working with feline leukaemia, a lentivirus which was subsequently shown to also cause immune deficiency in cats (feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus – FTLV or FeLV).iii[iii]
 
            “FeLV can cause either leukaemia or immune deficiency in cats. A minor variation in the virus’ outer envelope… determines whether infection leads to immune suppression or cancer.” Robert Gallo wrote in 1987.[iv]

            In 1973 Gallo and Sarndharan were co-authors of a subsequent study at the NCI/NIH that reports further purification of this human reverse transcriptase. [v] 

Early Virus Recombination 
 

In 1974, the US National Academy of Sciences (NAS) recommended that “scientists throughout the world join the members of this committee in voluntarily deferring experiments (linking) animal viruses.” But few paid attention.
 
       Gallo published a paper in 1975 saying he had discovered a new virus that was probably involved with human leukaemia (He called it HL-23) but a year later other researchers showed it to be a cocktail of three simian viruses – gibbon-ape virus, simian sarcoma virus and baboon endogenous virus – that somehow ‘contaminated’ Gallo’s cultures. The latter two are simian retroviruses.
 
       “It was bizarre,” Gallo said. Someone in Gallo’s NCI lab was working with genetic recombination of simian viruses after 1974, accidentally or otherwise.
      A perusal of The US Federation Proceedings for 1975 shows that other researchers at the NIH/NCI laboratories in Bethesda were working with simian viruses in that year;
 
Infection of Beagles with an Endogenous C-Type Virus describes one such experiment (funded by the NCI, USPHS and the WHO) in which “We are currently testing the pathogenicity (oncogenicity) of a primate virus in dogs. An endogenous baboon C-type virus (an ape retrovirus) was inoculated into 50-day old beagle fetuses in utero…”vi [vi]
 
       At least three study reports show that the NCI/NIH Bethesda labs were working with simian viruses, including “evolutionary variants” and RNA synthesis of Simian Virus 40 (SV-40).vii[vii] Many studies of genetic similarities between SV-40 and human papovaviruses combined the DNA of these monkeys with human viruses. [viii]

       Another NCI/NIH-funded study at Johns Hopkins University, Maryland, reported A  New Papovavirus from Stump-tailed Macaques (Macaca speciosa) that the researchers combined with SV-40 T-cell antibodies. They showed that this new virus was found in the kidneys of all the 15 macaque monkeys tested, “but in an unexpressed state, and without rendering the host tolerant.” [ix] It didn’t seem to harm the monkeys but was carried in their bodies.
 
       More importantly, D. Carlton Gajdusek of the NIH was carrying out a great deal of research into lentiviruses (retroviruses) including Kuru and Cruetzfeld-Jacob disease (CJD – now known as ‘mad cow disease’) during this period.
 
       “His work involved injecting these viruses, and others, into the brains and bloodstreams of many species of monkey, including the African Green. By 1976 over 300 monkeys and apes of at least 19 species had been used, and the project was still continuing.”[x]

       The retroviruses were grown in cultures of cells from African Green monkeys – which are commonly infected with SV-40, which is closely related to HIV.
 
        In Green Monkey culture experiments these retroviruses were deliberately mixed with many other forms of virus. It would hardly be surprising if mutations occurred; i.e. SV-40, STLV-III or another simian virus combining with a lentivirus (animal retrovirus). STLV-III (also known as SIV – Simian Immuno-deficiency Virus, closely related to HIV-2 strains) may have been produced a few years earlier by the repeated injection of known and unknown viruses (including SV-40) into laboratory monkeys and apes. Many lab cultures used contaminated foetal bovine serum as well, and cattle retroviruses also resemble SIV and HIV.
 
Johns Hopkins also studied the effects of “Visna and EAE: Pathogenesis and Effects of Immunosuppression” in Maryland in 1975. Their study centred on Visna’s effects on the brain and lymphatic system, under USPHS and NIH grants that year. EAE stands for Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis.” [xi]
 
       In 1975 the Bureau of Biologics and the National Naval Medical Centre (Office of Naval Research) at Bethesda, Maryland were assessing the T-cell function of patients with infectious mononucleosis (caused by cytomegalovirus – a co-factor of AIDS). It was a big year for immunology, ‘biologics’ and cross-species virus studies  [xii]– and no doubt for cross-contamination as well, given the facility’s record.
 
       We could go on (and on) but it’s easy to see that the NIH, NCI and others (including Dr Gallo) were paying no attention to the widely circulated 1974 NAS recommendation to stop cross-linking animal viruses. Further cross-linking took place even without the experimenters’ help or knowledge, as unknown viruses were spread right through the labs and lab animals.
 
       In some instances these animals (apes and monkeys are particularly expensive) were stolen and sold by employees and others. Direct experimentation on human beings was not uncommon.           
                           
 Egos Clash in the Lab 
 

A 1986 article by reporter Jonathan Kwitny in the Wall Street Journal found that “ego clashes, professional jealousies and perhaps worse” had dogged the American CDC’s AIDS research laboratories. These have been subject to allegations of “hampered research, political meddling, and even sabotaged experiments” according to Kwitny, along with “scientific decisions made to suit political ends”.
 
            The Journal claimed that a senior CDC scientist had valuable virus cultures thrown away because he wanted the lab to research his strains of isolates. Other scientists reported culture contamination, “Perhaps by someone spitting into them.”
 
            “They’ve lost their credibility almost completely,” Dr Paul Luciw of the University of California (one of the scientists who helped map the gene structure of HIV) said.
 
            Accusations have been leveled at Gallo for his ‘discovery’ of HIV in 1984. It was shown that the retrovirus he introduced to the world as HTLV-III almost certainly came from cultures isolated by Dr Luc Montagnier’s team a year earlier at the Pasteur Institute. Gallo’s cultures were, once again, somehow ‘contaminated’. The French and US governments settled the issue out of court, splitting the profits from the resultant (and very lucrative) HIV blood tests between them.
 
             Gallo also misclassified HIV as being in the family of human leukaemia retroviruses he discovered in 1978, another mistake that took a year for researchers to disprove (setting AIDS research back by the same margin). [xiii]

            Gallo remained a star within national organisations funding AIDS research - and immunisation programmes. 

Polio Vaccine & Simian Virus 40 
 
 

“The present AIDS virus, it would appear from research, is an end-product of either SV-40 or a hybrid of it”

- Dr John West, The AIDS Time Bomb 
 
If you lived in the latter decades of the 20th Century, chances are you know someone who died of a brain tumour that was directly caused by early vaccination programmes [like the Kenya-born and vaccinated co-founder of NEXUS Magazine and ex-partner of this author]. There’s a fairly well-known precedent for viral contamination of vaccines. Monkey kidneys were used for the manufacture of medical products – including vaccines – before 1962.
 
These products were infected with Simian Virus 40 (SV-40), a monkey virus that was previously shown to cause human tissue to become cancerous. SV-40 was originally identified as a type of polyoma (many tumours) virus in 1960.
 
In the (earlier mentioned) study of Eaton Agent in human volunteers in 1961, “The inoculum was found to contain a small quantity of SV-40 virus, a common contaminant of rhesus monkey tissue culture.”
 
       SV-40 also caused severe immuno-suppression and was reported to be one of the activators of AIDS by the US National Academy of Sciences in 1986. In 1962 the same organisation reported that “Simian Virus 40… can induce a reproducible epithelioid transformation in primary cultures of human cells…” and an “inherent cellular morphosis”.[xiv]
 
In this and subsequent studies SV-40 was shown to be carcinogenic in various human cells. It was also shown to be mutagenic, causing genetic changes to human chromosomes; particularly chromosome Groups 21 & 22, which are related to mongolism and some forms of human leukaemia. [xv]
 
       “SV-40 hybridises with other viruses, especially Epstein-Barr, infectious mononucleosis (CMV) etc.” This is clearly stressed by a committee from Harvard Medical School and Boston Children’s Hospital Medical Centre, who also name SV-40 as an activator of HIV. [xvi]
 
       “Millions of people were inadvertently injected with SV-40,” according to William Bennett, medical editor of the Harvard University Press in the February 1977 edition of The Atlantic, “the unrecognised contaminant of polio vaccines given before 1962 and some ‘cold shots’ [that] were given around the same time. Because viruses can take years or decades to produce disease, there is no way of knowing what effects the mass inoculation with SV-40 may eventually have.”
 
       In 1985, Dr Jacob Rachlin (heading a group of University of Chicago researchers) reported on a study that turned up SV-40 in human cancers to the American Association of Neurological Surgeons;
 
       “Results suggest that SV-40 may be a good candidate as a possible cause for human brain tumours.” Three children in Rachlin’s study whose mothers received polio shots in pregnancy developed brain tumours.
 
       Sixty-four million Americans were vaccinated with an unknown number of contaminated polio vaccine batches in the 1960s – the number of people affected worldwide is far greater. The levels of brain tumours and other diseases (including multiple sclerosis, cancers, Parkinson’s disease and even mongolism) caused by these polio vaccines is unknown, but many, many people have been killed or crippled. The delay between infected vaccination and the onset of cancer can be at least twenty or thirty years with SV-40; there has been a related statistical increase in US brain cancers [and other implicated diseases] according to Dr Douglass and others. xvii

       While engaged in research on SV-40, Eva Lee Snead, MD, found 392 references in the pre-internet Medline medical computer system since 1980. Back in 1963 SV-40 started turning up in human vaccination patients.
 
       Those who remember the ravages of polio on the global population may be inclined to forgive researchers, scientists and governments for contaminating humanity with a range of new deadly debilitating diseases – while successfully eradicating the threat of polio across most of the world. Such forgiveness is short-sighted at best – and polio would have faded as the population developed resistance (and better nutrition) in any case. 

       The contamination of humanity with a range of pathogenic organisms that have crossed the species ‘barrier’ into our bloodstreams thanks to the ineptitude and deliberate actions of scientists, politicians and the military has been a very poor tradeoff. As we shall see, polio vaccines actually caused polio infections as well. 

Viruses in Polio Vaccines 
 
Dr Snead found one article written in 1963; “Near Disaster With Salk Vaccine” in Science Digest’s December edition reported that SV-40 was “unwittingly put into hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of doses of early Salk vaccine…
 
           “There was some evidence the SV-40 virus could produce a slight, non-cancerous infection in man, and when put in tissue culture could cause some cell changes suggestive of tumour growth.”
 
            One study she unearthed reported “Excretion of SV-40 virus after oral administration of contaminated polio vaccine. 

         SV-40 virus has been recovered from 10 out of 35 babies primovaccinated orally with type 1 attenuated poliovirus vaccine contaminated with SV-40 virus. It was found that excretors of SV-40 developed a lower antibody level against type 1 poliovirus than the non-excretors.” [xviii]
 
           Dr Snead also found that vaccines were under heavy suspicion in the same year;
 
            “Scientific data have been reviewed which show that the problem of the carcinogenic potential of live virus vaccines should be regarded as an urgent one. Various aspects of this problem and principal lines of its solution are discussed.” [xix]
 
       “Since SV-40 was present, yet passed undetected in the early specimens of Salk and Sabin vaccine, viruses other than SV-40 could also have fooled us,” Dr Snead wrote. She also noted; [xx]
 
·        In 1960 the WHO (World Health Organisation) issued a Bulletin reporting unexpected, undesirable viruses that might be encountered in vaccines.

·        In 1961 live (whole virus) polio vaccination was started.

·        In 1963 the Journal of the New York Academy of Science reported that humans were susceptible to a simian tumour virus. The Science Digest article on S-40 contamination also appeared.

·        In 1964 The Russian journal Voprosi Virusologyi reported the danger of malignancies developing due to viruses contaminating live virus vaccines.
This author has found that in 1970 the NCI crossed SV-70 with a human adenovirus (Ad7). The hybrid was cultured in human tissue and contained “the genetic information for SV-40 T-antigen induction within the Ad7 coat [which] bypasses the block to T-antigen production in SV-40 resistant cells.” [xxi]
 
       In the 1972 Federation Proceedings of the United States there is a report on Viral Studies of Immunodeficient Patients. xxii[xxii] “Studies of five patients with… severe combined immunodeficiency disease showed that all were excreting a virus. In two of these five cases, the child’s death could be attributed to the virus infection… In addition, four of these patients were excreting poliovirus. Two of these isolettes have been shown to be of the vaccine strain. Two patients continue to excrete poliovirus regularly in the stool for long periods of time…”
 
       Were already immunodeficient children actually given polio vaccinations, or did the immunodeficiency arise after the vaccinations?
 
In June 1988 the US Supreme Court unanimously ruled that the Government could be held liable for the paralysis of a child who contracted polio from a Federally-approved vaccine in 1979. The ruling stated that the Food & Drug Administration were lax and ignored “relevant safety standards” in approving a dangerous product and allowing distribution of sub-standard Sabin vaccine.
 
        After the introduction of polio vaccination in the 1950s, polio is now rare in the U.S. – but between six and nine new cases were still reported each year, mainly in children given live (whole) virus in Sabin oral vaccine. The vaccines themselves have not been subject to close scrutiny until recent times. Drs Gallo and Montagnier both agreed that SV-40 is closely related to the AIDS virus. It may be an ancestor of SIV. SV-40 has been extensively studied since 1960 and its symptoms resemble AIDS in non-primate lab animals.
 
       In his book The AIDS Time Bomb (1988) DrJohn West, a biologist from Bundaberg in Queensland, Australia links SV-40 and AIDS more directly;
       “The present AIDS virus, it would appear from research, is an end-product of either SV-40 or a hybrid of it.”
 
       Primary multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a type of ‘brain rot’, is linked to SV-40 virus – as are increased tumour growth and birth defects. SV-40 also causes severe immunodepression and has been shown to be a ‘host factor’ and possible triggering agent for AIDS.  It may predispose people to chronic viral infections by damaging the immune system and hybridising with other viruses – particularly Epstein-Barr virus, or infectious mononucleosis.
 
       Many viruses can work together to damage the immune system’s T-cells. Dr Robert Gallo told the Fourth International Conference in Stockholm (1988) that a widespread form of herpes virus he discovered in 1986 (now called HHV-6 - human herpes virus 6) works with HIV in a “vicious cycle” to destroy the body’s T-cells. HIV weakens the immune system, allowing other viruses to enter, activating HIV and causing it to propagate, etc. [xxiii]
 
        It seems very possible that STLV-III/SIV itself developed only recently, in parallel with (or into) one of the HIV strains, from animal retroviruses that were repeatedly injected into laboratory apes, monkeys and other animals. It’s possible SIV (and at least one type of HIV) evolved via a mutatedSV-40 laboratory strain.
 
       Vaccines were contaminated with known – and possibly still unknown – retroviruses, bound up in the tissues of green, rhesus and many other monkeys. Viral diseases were widely collected by medical research organisations (such as the Rockefeller Foundation Laboratories) from the 1940s onward. “Many new viruses were isolated, some of which have not yet [1974] been associated with disease syndromes.” [xxiv]
 
       Any number of viruses – but more particularly monkey-borne viruses such as SV-40 and SIV – could have provided a route for ‘lower’ animal retroviruses (‘slow viruses’ in sheep and cattle) to cross the species barrier into humans. All have been subject to extensive recombination, deliberate and accidental.
 
       Simian viruses including SV-40 have been shown to be capable of carrying other viruses into the human system by ‘piggybacking’ them or hybridising with them. [xxv]
 
       In the late 1980s the WHO endorsed a vast new global polio immunisation programme to eradicate the disease (which reportedly struck 275,000 people each year) 'by the year 2000'…[xxvi] 
                      


   

Continued... 

by R. Ayana
 

    





[i]   iNature,  234, 194 (1971)
[ii]  iiThe Federation Proceedings of the United States, 1972, S3699, p 867 Abs
[iii]  iiThe Federation Proceedings of the United States, 1972, 3907, p 902 Abs
[iv]  ivScientific American, January 1987
[v]  vThe Federation Proceedings of the United States, 1973, S2284, p 620 Abs
[vi]  vi Ibid, 1975, S4279, p 975 (Later called FASEB)
[vii]  viiIbid, 1975, S1724, S1726, p 526
[viii]  viiiIbid, 1975, S1722, p 526
[ix]  ixIbid, 1975, S4278, p 974
[x] xBiohazard, British NAVS, 51 Harley St, London
[xi] xiThe Federation Proceedings of the United States, 1975, S4119, p 947
[xii] xiiIbid, 1975, S4127, p94 
[xiii] xiii New Scientist, 12-2-1987
[xiv]  xivShein & Enders, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (US), Vol 48, 1962, pp 1164-1172
[xv]  xvIbid, Jensen et al Vol 50 1963, pp 343-348
[xvi] xviProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol 83, pp 9759-9763, December 1986
[xvii]  xviiWHO Murdered Africa, Reader, 7-8-1987 (L.A>, USA) & Australasian Health & Healing Vol 7, No 3, April 1988 p 32
[xviii]  xviiiActa Microbiologica Scientaria Hungary, 1964
[xix]  xixB.L. Horvath & F. Fornosi, Acta Microbiologica Scientaria Hungary, Vol 11, pp 271-275, 1964-1965
[xx]  xxHealth Freedom News (USA), July 1987 Vol 6 No 6 (National Health Federation, Monrovia Ca 91016) & Australasian Health & Healing, Vol 7 No 4, July 1988 p 35
[xxi] xxi Susceptibility of Human Cell Strains to Transformation by Simian Virus 40 and Simian Virus 40 Deoxyribonucleic Acid, AARONSON, Viral Carcinogenisis Branch, NCI, Journal of Virology, Oct 1970, Vol 6 No 4, p 47-475
[xxii]  xxiiFederation Proceedings of the United States, 1972, Carlos Lopez et al p.635 Abs, Minneapolis, Minn.
[xxiii]  xxiiiThe Australian, 14-6-1988
[xxiv]  xxivCentral African Journal of Medicine, Vol 20 No 4, April 1974, p 71
[xxv]  xxvDr Eva Lee Snead,  Health Report, October 1987; Dr Harold E. Buttram, Australasian Health & Healing Vol 7 No 2
[xxvi]  xxviAP, Sydney Morning Herald 14-5-1988
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