Steven and Evan Strong's new theory of human civilisation
FACT and FICTION FILE
Aboriginal Elder: Page 122 and back cover of “Voices of the First Day”
<55 span="" years="">55>: Bundjalung Dreaming story: “The Sacred Spring.”
This oral account declares that “from the beginning, this land was one whole land from here to India,” which was eventually separated by “just one mass of water.”
6,000,000 years: Bundjalung Dreaming story: “The Fairy Emus.”
“A big rock stands in the sea six miles out from Byron Bay.” It has been millions of years since the sea floor beside this island (Julian Rocks) was last exposed. “Nguthungulli had a cave in the rock.” There is only one cave at Julian Rocks, which is located adjacent to the sea floor.
850,000 years: “HOMO ERECTUS VOYAGES CLOSER TO AUSTRALIA.”
Extremely convincing evidence of the presence of Homo erectus, who sailed to Flores (the second closest Indonesian island to Australia) from an unknown destination. They reached this island “between 800,000 to 900,000 years ago.” According to respected archaeologist, Josephine Flood, this fact “also makes evidence for an earlier human arrival of ancient mariners into Australia easier to accept.”
400,000 years: Professor Cann was confident that “mitochondrial DNA puts the origin of Homo sapiens much further back and indicates that the Australian Aborigines arose over 400,000 years ago from two distinct lineages, far earlier than any racial type.”
400,000 years: Professor Cann was prepared to extend and provide a sequence to her findings. “The Aboriginal racial group has a much higher rate of mutations than any other racial group, which suggests that the Aboriginals split off from the common ancestor about 400,000 years ago. By the same theory, the Mongoloids originated about 100,000 years ago, and the Negroid and Caucasians about 40,000 years ago.”
400,000 years: Professor Alan Wilson was the academic primarily responsible for the popular theory proposing all of humanity descended from one woman in Africa at around 150,000 years ago. “It seems too far out to admit, but while Homo erectus was muddling along in the rest of the world, a few erectus had got to Australia and did something dramatically different-not even with stone tools-but it was here that Homo sapiens have emerged and evolved … Homo sapiens would have evolved free from competition out of a small band of Homo erectus 400,000 years ago to Australia.” “Voices of the First Day”
Wilson, along with his colleague, Mark Stoneking, came to Australia in 1985 and 1987 to investigate the claims of a much larger genetic variation of Aboriginal people than he originally assumed. He found in their 1985 sampling of 10, “seven different mtDNA lineages,” while in 1987 they detected, from a survey of 21, “at least 15 different mtDNA lineages colonized Australia.”
>200, 000 years. Dates of this unexpected size are applicable to two sites at Lake Valseqillo. According to Paul Rennie, Silvia Gonzales proposed date for footprints found in ash of 40,000 years is far too conservative. He believes either the date of 790,000 years (magnetic shift) or 1,300,000 years (argon argon) is more in keeping with the science of the site.
Nor is he alone, the uniformity and enormity of dates ascribed to a second site at Lake Valsequillo, has no contradictions: every date announced is consistent in sharing six figures. The artefacts at the site are all agreed to be of Homo sapien making and include the following experts and dates; Barney Szabo, Uranium Series Dating >200,000 years; Virginia Steen-McIntyre, tephrahydration >250,000 years-mineral solution >200,000 years, Charles Nasser Zircon fission-track (2 samples) 370,000 and 600,000 years-U-Th/He >200,000 years, the potential for “600,000-year-old art,” etc. In every case the identity of the Homo sapien responsible, and this applies equally to any other site exceeding 10-12,000 years, has to be Australian Aboriginal.
180,000 years: Jim Bowler, Gurdup Singh, Peter Ouwendyk. Charcoal deposits extracted from the Great Barrier Reef in 1983 were determined by these three experts to be strongly indicative of Aboriginal presence through fire-stick farming.
175,000 to 116,000 years: Stone tools were recovered at Jimnium, the date has been challenged by many academics.
<150 span="">150>: Until Wilson’s two visits to Australia, his outdated ‘molecular clock,’ which led on to the mistaken assumption modern humans evolved from an African mother 150,000 years ago, was predicated on the assumption Homo sapiens first entered Australia 50,000 years ago, and that these people have one third the genetic diversity of Africans, thus leading to an age of around 150,000 years. But as found by Cann, Simmons, and eventually himself, Aboriginal people are far more genetically diverse than any other population (according to Cann 10 times more than Africans).
135,000 years: Lake Eyre (South Australia) Fragment of skull-cap dated at 135,000 years through thermoluminescense.
120,000 years: Lake George (NSW). As was found at the Great Barrier Reef, there is a sudden and dramatic increase in charcoal deposits detected in core samples drilled into lake’s floor. Gurdup Singh was adamant this was due to human activity in the form of fire-stick farming.
<117 span="" years="">117>: Rock engravings on the headland at Devonport are claimed by local Tasmanian Elder “Tinker” Gowan to be older than those found at Jimnium.
>116,000 years: A rock engraving site was originally dated at between 65,000-116,000 years old. Of course this finding upset many experts, who challenge the date obtained at Jimnium. They contested this controversial date noting that “some grains have older optical ages because they received insufficient exposure to sunlight before burial.” How this could be verified? Outside being on site when buried, this critique cannot be proven.
95,000 years: The earliest date for arrival of ‘hobbits’ by boat at Flores Island from an unknown destination. The island is over 20 kms from any other Indonesian island and second closest to Australia.
>75,000 years: Discovered in 1923 at Panaramattee, there is an engraved salt water crocodile found near Lake Eyre (South Australia). According to Josephine Flood, “I am going to be so bold to suggest that it may derive from a time when terrestrial crocodiles and humans actually co-existed … more than 75,000 years ago.”
74,000 years: The “global population was reduced even more when the Toba volcano in Sumatra erupted 74,000 years ago-the world’s worst natural disaster of the last 2 million years. This enormous eruption spewed ash to the north-west covering India, Pakistan and the Gulf region in a blanket 1-3m deep and spread as far as Greenland … this catastrophe reduced the world’s population to between two to ten thousand.” Josephine Flood
N.B. The ash cloud did not spread to the south (Australia). This world population estimate assumes Australia was uninhabited, with such low numbers outside Australia this massive eruption negates the often used excuse that increasing population forced some Africans to continually move in search of an unpopulated location. With this dramatic reduction in numbers outside Australia, this provides an opportunity and incentive for some Aboriginal people to sail abroad from Australia.
61,000 to 62,000 years: WLH3 (Mungo Man) The corpse was buried with his hands grasping his penis and coated in red ochre, as were his descendants until well after British occupation. Both lower front teeth were extracted when in his teens. The revised dates were obtained through the application of Electron Spin Resonance= 62,000 years, Uranium Series Dating= 62,000 years and Luminescence= 61,000 years. Moreover, his mtDNA contains an “extinct gene” which has no connection to African Homo sapiens and has vigorously “shaken the human family tree” and “rocked anthropology.” Both claims have opponents who refute the date and genetics. Ironically, Jim Bowler, one of Thorne’s critics, co-authored the 1983 paper claiming evidence of human activity 180,000 years ago (Great Barrier Reef).
>60,000 years: Bundjalung Dreaming story: “The Frog who would be King.” This details how every approach from Africa was denied. “Where would he come from, Africa? That’s where the lions and tigers are.” No matter what he offered the “king of Africa” was refused permission to enter, “O we don’t want anything like that. We got ‘em here in this place … But he saved Australia from these deadly animals.”
Roy Simmons (Commonwealth Serum Laboratories). “For good measure, he paid particular attention to the question of any possible Australian connection to Africa. Repudiating the ‘Out of Africa’ theory of human origins, Simmons said that he thought that the Australian data indicated that the Aborigines actually evolved earlier than the African Negroes. There was no blood evidence, he said, to indicate the African Negroes had any connection to the Australian Aborigines.”
“Fifty years of blood genetic research has failed to provide any clue to Aboriginal origins … May I state here and now that our extensive blood surveys conducted in Australia, Indonesia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia over three decades have produced no genetic evidence that the Negro ever entered the Pacific.” Professor Keith Windshuttle
“We therefore have no hesitation in omitting the Negritos as the ancestors of the Australian Aborigines.” Professor Lanarch
Their “Y chromosomes contain strands unique to Australian Aboriginals.”
Josephine Flood noted that “uniquely, full-descent Aborigines lacked A2 and B of the ABO blood group system, S of the MNSs system and Rh negative genes r, r’ and r.” Western Desert people show a distinctive genetic pattern, with the world’s highest value in the N gene of the MNSs system.” Moreover, according to Flood, the Aboriginal people are “possibly the world’s only racial group completely lacking in the S blood antigen.”
In what only distances Aboriginal and African people and any potential relationship, Flood admitted that “Aborigines belong almost exclusively to A and O … tellingly, in blood groups Aborigines resemble Caucasians; Europeans are mainly A and O. When examining “DNA studies,” she made note of the fact that the First Australians “form an ancient lineage, most different from black Africans.”
60,000 years: WLH1 (Mungo Woman) She was nineteen, 4 foot 10 inches and received an even more elaborate ceremony than WLH3. Her cremation was so intense no mtDNA could be recovered. Her bones were smashed into tiny fragments, painted in red ochre, and then buried.
FICTION ALERT, Number 1.
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Between 60,000 to 50,000 years ago Homo sapiens exiting Africa sailed to the uninhabited continent of Australia.
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Between 60,000 to 50,000 years ago Homo sapiens exiting Africa sailed to the uninhabited continent of Australia.
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>40,000 to 50,000 years: WLH50. According to John Head (Radiocarbon Dating Research Unit of the Australian National University) WLH 50 is “more probably in excess of 40,000 to 50,000 years” old. He is not gracile, as is the case with Mungo Man and Woman. The brain of this robust individual is “1540 millilitres, well above the average 1300 for modern skulls.” The skull of WLH 50 is “15-19 millimetres thick, that of WLH 1 only 2 millimetres.” Yet, if consulting the history books, WLH 50 must have evolved from the same ancestry as the gracile Aborigines, and both have only just arrived in this uninhabited continent. If so, why is it the most robust skull is the oldest, shouldn’t the differences slowly emerge?
>50,000 years: Kimberley Region. The oldest paintings of boats were ‘discovered’ by Graham Walsh. They are dated between 17 to 50,000 years, but according to Walsh “more likely” to be close to 50,000 years old. The boats were crewed with 23 and 29 people. Walsh claims “they are massive boats, totally alien,” each had a “high prow used in open-ocean” and were made as “ocean-going boats.”
<43 span="" years="">43>: Olary (South Australia). Rock engravings dated by cation ratio. This site is thousands of kilometers from every proposed entry site. Dr. Donald Dorn (Arizona State University) is confident that the engravings are much older than 43,000 years, and the world’s oldest engravings.
40,000 years: Huon Terrace (PNG). Oldest discovered axe, the next oldest axe was found at Sandy Creek (Queensland) and dated at 32,000 years-the essential tool if constructing sturdy “ocean-going boats.”
“Australians first Americans.” Daily Telegraph, September 8, 2004. “Australian Aborigines ‘first’ Americans.” Courier Mail, April 13, 1996.
40,000 years: Lake Vasiquillo (Mexico). According to Silvia Gonzales the footprints discovered in volcanic ash are Aboriginal.
37,000 years: South Carolina. Hearth and stone tools-dated by Carbon 14.
36,000 years: Egypt. “Old Egyptian writings state that their civilization learnt to build pyramids from an ancient people who once came from a great south land in the east.”
“According to the Turin Papyrus before Egypt’s first dynasty-preceding 3,000 years BCE- ‘The Followers of Horus ruled for 13,000 years and before them “the Gods” ruled for 20,000 years … their civilisation’s history dates back 36,000 years.”
Cairo Times 1982: Siwa Oasis. “Archaeologists working at Fayum, near the Siwa Oasis, uncovered fossils of kangaroos and other Australian marsupials.”
“The Egyptian religious practices, zoomorphic pantheon of gods, concepts of life and rebirth, sorcery, magic and medicine all have origins in the primal culture of the First Day.” Robert Lawlor.
<30 span="" years:="">30> Living in Siberia, the Denisovians were a group of hominids and separate species, who lived alongside Homo sapiens. Recently mtDNA was extracted from a finger bone and found a direct relationship to people living in Papua-New Guinea. It has to be remembered that until 8,000 years PNG was part of the Greater Australian continent called Sahul, and merely the northern outpost of this much larger landmass. As such, this contact, bearing in mind these lesser hominids are not Homo sapien, (the only species claimed able to build boats of crossing oceans) must have occurred as a result of sailing from Australia, no later than 30,000 years ago
<30 span="" years="">30>: Australia (Wardaman Tribe, N.T.) “If night sky phenomena was being reflected here, ancient human culture with early astronomy might be over 30,000 years old.”
23,000 to 19,000 years: Lake Mungo. “One curious set of footprints appears to have been made by a one-legged man.”
22,000 years: Originally thought to be between 10,000 to 12,000 years old, the site was recently re-dated and found to be up to 22,000 years old. Kow Swamp (Victoria) is the largest burial site of the late Pleistocene epoch. The human remains are entirely robust, there is not one gracile bone found, and it also bears witness to a large variety of burial rituals.
15,000 to 14,000 years: Patagonia. Professor Augusto Cardich claims the ancient art found in Patagonian caves “was due to one or more migrations” and that they “entered South America from Australia … some 14,000 to 15,000 years ago.”
14,000 to 10,000 years: Dr. Walter Reeves was “very, very surprised that a variety of skulls found in Colombia and Peru (10-14,000 years) were the same race as the Australian Aborigines … and this fact will necessitate a reassessment of American pre-history.”
Webber and Hubbe conducted the largest analysis of American pre-Clovis remains, from a pool of over 250 individuals they assembled 55 skulls and compared them against every known race. They found the three closest matches are: “Australian Mainland Aboriginal, Tasmanian Aboriginal and the Tolai (island of PNG).”
12,700 years: When examining a pre-Clovis skull, referred to as Luczia, Silvia Gonzales conceded that “skeletal evidence pointed strongly to the unpalatable truth” that “the first migration came from Australia.”
10,200 years: At Wyrie Swamp (South Australia), the oldest boomerang was found and is dated at 10,200 years. Boomerangs have also been found in Tutenkahman’s Tomb, Poland, Germany and throughout Europe. It is still used in Southern India by the Deccan tribes.
10,010 years: “Prior to about 8,000 BC there was apparently no burial of bodies anywhere in Europe among humans at all.”
>10,000 years. Circular rock formation-oldest evidence of astronomical practises in the world was found at Wurdi Youang (80 kms west of Melbourne). According to a “group of Australia’s most distinguished astro-physicists” the rock sundial could be over 10,000 years old. Professor Ray Norris is insistent the precise alignment of stones was created to map the sun. He claimed that “this can’t be done by guesswork, it required very careful measurements. If it goes back, let’s say, 10,000 years, that pre-dates the Egyptians, the Pyramids, Stonehenge, all that stuff.” If astronomy begins in Australia, a skill essential for any navigating great expanses of ocean, this must surely strengthen the chances boats first sailed from Australia.
3317 BC: The earliest accepted date where astronomical knowledge was displayed by any non-Aboriginal culture.
5,000 to 2,000 years: The period of time during which a variety of Egyptian artefacts have been found in Australia.
>5,000 years: The controversial seven-stepped Gympie Pyramid. The site contains slag-the by-product of metallurgy, which is definitely non-Aboriginal, and a variety of anomalies.
>4,000 years: There are over 250 hieroglyphs found within a cave at the Hunter Valley (NSW), some of which, according to Roy Johnston, are from the earliest Egyptian dynasty. They detail the “stranding in this wretched place” of “Lord Djes-eb.” Unfortunately, “he was twice bitten by a snake,” and then interred in the cave.
2,900 years: “World renowned medical scientist Sir Ralph Cilento, who examined the corpse, stated that the incisions and method of embalming to be the same as those employed in Egypt in the 21st to 23rd Dynasties over 2,900 years ago.” Commentary provided on an Aboriginal mummy stolen by the Sherwood Expedition from Darnley Island (Torres Strait) in 1875.
2,231-2,038 years: At Barron Falls (1910, near Cairns, QLD) “Andrew Johnson found two coins 40mm in diameter and 7mm thick minted in Barce, Cyrennia during the reign of Ptolemy 1V, these coins were dated at 221BC and 204BC.” During the same year and general area (Gordonvale), while excavating for a well, Egyptian jewellery and “a bronze coin dated at 28BC” were unearthed.
<1 span="" years="">1>: Two skulls discovered which show evidence of successful brain surgery, where “bone growth showed the patient survived.” (Dr. Denise Donlan) “The trepidation (cutting) had been performed skillfully, so as to minimize bleeding. I regard it as absolutely mind-blowing, a great tribute to Aboriginal skills … it could change the public perception of Aboriginal culture.” (Professor Noel Dann)
FICTION ALERT, Number 2.
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222 years: After a 50,000 year period of continual isolation, 222 years ago, a second migration of humans sailed to Australia.
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222 years: After a 50,000 year period of continual isolation, 222 years ago, a second migration of humans sailed to Australia.
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188 years: “… records of the event were kept in a diary compiled by Captain Breamer … Sprung into the water and made towards the boat with surprising celerity, jumping at each step entirely out of the sea, although it was so deep as to reach their thighs.”
77 years: Professor Elkin’s account of an instance of first contact with traditional Aboriginals of the Kinberley region (WA) contains this entry …“when tribal elders greeted him Ancient secret Masonic hand signs. He was also struck by the startling semantic features present in the natives.” In what was even more puzzling, “many of the words spoken were of Egyptian origin.”
FICTION ALERT, Number 3.
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110 years through to now from two perspectives and with two alternatives:
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110 years through to now from two perspectives and with two alternatives:
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ALTERNATIVE 1-The popular press:
“Daily Telegraph, (February 5, 2010, page 11.), “Darwin’s Origins” This article was a brief overview and no more than 500 words in length, as a result of this format, our reply will be equally brief.
According to the author, and the subheading, the issues over which theory is correct in relation to human origin have already been resolved. “DNA traces naturalist’s lineage back to ancient Africa.” The paper then sets out three facts that are pivotal events and underpin Eve’s existence and African ancestry.
“1. Some modern humans began leaving northeast Africa about 60,000 years ago. Darwin’s paternal ancestors migrated out of north east Africa to the Middle East or north Africa about 45,000 years ago … 15,000 years ago: small groups of hunter gatherers entered into the Americas when ice sheets parted.”
The prevailing assumption that forms the foundation upon which the theory of Homo sapiens originating solely out of Africa is based upon: is that all modern humans are “descended from a common ancestor in Africa.”
This hypothetical mother, often referred to as “Eve,” doesn’t actually exist. No body has been reclaimed, no mtDNA has been extracted from “Eve’s” bones, in fact the most ancient bones to have successfully been analysed were WLH3. Whether the date is actually 60 or 45,000 years is irrelevant, as things stand, no bones of that antiquity (150,000 to 200,000 years) would yield any result.
Her proposed location, somewhere on plains of Africa is unproven. All that can be stated is that an influx of Homo sapien, took place 60,000 years ago, but from where these modern people came can only be hypothetical. Professor Alan Wilson was one of the first to champion the accepted theory of an African genesis. What may not be so well known, is that not only did he correct this error and nominate Australia as the place where Homo sapien “evolved and emerged,” but the molecular clock chronicling the development of Homo sapiens through the analysis of mitochondrial DNA, was entirely dependent on two assumptions that mark out seminal events in Australia’s pre-history.
Wilson mistakenly accepted, and to his credit visited Australia twice to rectify his error, that the First Australians had one third the mtDNA diversity than that of the Africans. As a corollary, he also presumed the Aboriginal people were African who either became accidentally stranded, or were the outcome of the actions and maritime skills of a small group of adventurous explorers. But, as Rebecca Cann’s studies of mtDNA of Indigenous people throughout the world found, the Australian Aboriginal mtDNA was far more diverse than expected. Instead of being one third the mutation level of the Africans, a dramatic shift in parameters and geography was evident: the Australian mtDNA was actually 10 times more diverse than the African. She believes that the Australian Homo sapien first appeared 400,000 years ago, while the African Homo sapiens emerged 40,000 years ago, as evidenced the proposed second migration around the same time. As to whether the ancestors of the first migration were born in Australia, Professor Wilson’s personal studies proved Cann was indeed right.
First in 1985, and two years later, where he examined the mtDNA of 21 Aboriginal people, he received almost identical percentages. If one, perhaps even up to four separate strands were found, this would indicate a small group or inquisitive or unlucky survivors did colonise Australia. But the 7 distinct strands from 10 examined in 1985, and 15 from 21 in 1987, was well beyond any prediction and model. Wilson stated that there had to more than 15 pregnant women aboard the first African fleet. But what if the survey was extended, with a recurring 70% mutation rate as a guide, wouldn’t 1,000 samples lead to the potential there were 700 pregnant women on this massive boat?
Moreover, if they sailed from Africa to Australia, why is it the oldest painting of a boat is Australian and close to 50,000 years old, and the first evidence of inter-continental journeys with the assistance of a boat is found in America, and the result of the endeavours of Australian Aboriginal people over 40,000 years ago? According to the requirements nominated by article, entry into America began no earlier than 15,000 years ago. In spite of what was written, it is also true that there are 40,000 year old footprints in volcanic ash, hearths dated at 37,500 years and dozens upon dozens of human remains bearing an unmistakable Aboriginal morphology and ancestry that run counter to what the headlines declare as fact.
As to where the first migrants came from, and where Eve was born, may we suggest the answer does start with an A, but what may surprise many is that the second letter is u.
ALTERNATIVE 2-The academic press:
Nearly every authoritative book highlighting any aspect of Aboriginal pre-history, almost invariably written by non-Aboriginals during the 20th century, lay claim to the fallacy that Aboriginals are descended from African Homo sapiens. All, if read with an open mind, are internally contradictory. Of the hundreds of publications to choose from, we believe it would be of benefit to examine one the most recent publications.
Josephine Flood’s latest contribution, The Original Australians, bears testimony to this popular belief. She is a highly respected archaeologist, and the author of many books devoted to Aboriginal pre-history, and a staunch advocate of the Out-of-Africa theory.
In what we believe to be as equally ironic as it is symptomatic of the urge to conform to existing paradigms, associated with the most convincing evidence supplied by Flood, which adds considerable substance to our belief that African Homo sapiens are in no way related to the modern human beings of Australia, there is also on the same page (175) a sub-heading titled: From Africa to Australia.
Directly above this exotic and erroneous explanation of a non-existent migration detailing how the uninhabited continent of Australia was discovered “between 60 and 50 kya,” (176) is an extremely brief and manifestly inconsistent summary of “Blood groups.” (175)
Flood begins this scant summation with a one paragraph overview, consisting of less than 12 lines, by referring to the recent work done in analysing “blood samples taken from 10,000 Aborigines.” (175) Originally collected “to make blood transfusions safer in remote areas,” the most recent advances in science have been applied to this extensive repository. The problem being, the various findings repeatedly contradict the existence of any supposed connection to Africa.
“Uniquely, full-descent Aborigines lacked A2 and B of the ABO blood group system, S of the MNSs system and Rh negative genes r, r’ and r.” Western Desert people show a distinctive genetic pattern, with the world’s highest value in the N gene of the MNSs system, implying a very long period of isolation.” (175)
May we suggest any comparison predicated by vocabulary that includes “uniquely,” “world’s highest,” “distinctive genetic pattern” and “long period of isolation” provides an exceptionally tenuous link to any external population. Moreover, when conceding that “Aborigines are possibly the world’s only racial group completely lacking in the S blood group antigen,” (175) the case for a shared ancestry is dramatically weakened.
In what must only heighten the differences and call into question any African link, “Aborigines belong almost exclusively to A and O, with only a little B in the extreme north, where it is an import from New Guinea … Tellingly, in blood groups Aborigines resemble Caucasians; Europeans are mainly A and O.” (175)
We are compelled to pause at this juncture, and challenge Flood’s deliberate use of the word “import.” PNG was, as Flood acknowledges, part of Australia until 8,000 years ago. And as such, in an archaeological sense, any connection to a separate location (PNG) before the sea levels rose and submerged the land-bridge, is an unwanted and unnecessary distraction. Before the seas flooded the plains, PNG was for all intents and purposes part of Australia.
What seems to highlight the recurring lack of overseas input, is that the Aboriginal people “are possibly the world’s only racial group completely lacking in the S blood group antigen.”
Flood then shifts her attention and refers to the most recent comparative “DNA studies,” to which she correctly asserts “have added to the picture.” (175) But as to what picture she is depicting is unclear, and in what only obscures the images she is manufacturing, Flood excludes any African pigment from her canvas.
In what is an extremely puzzling admission, Flood conceded that the “DNA studies … all support a common origin for New Guinea highlanders and Australian Aborigines form an extremely ancient lineage, most different from black Africans and most similar to highland New Guineans.” (175)
Once again Flood creates a connection that is as irrelevant as it is a hindrance, the last phrase should read: most different from black Africans and most similar to themselves. As stated earlier, those from PNG, until the seas rose after the thawing of the last Ice Age, were part of one homogenous Australian racial group. Moreover, to openly proclaim the Aborigines are “most different from black Africans,” appears to cancel any African involvement and openly contradict Flood’s belief in external migration by African Homo sapiens.
If more proof is needed, Flood provides one final nail in her academic coffin with the summation she provides, which isolates and distances the Australian Aboriginals as a distinct group.
“Comparative studies of several thousand fossil skulls support the common origin hypothesis for the people of Greater Australia (Sahul), placing Aboriginal Australians and New Guineans together as an Australo-Melanesian group … characteristic of a population isolated for a long period.” (175)
In what only adds to the uncertainties when clinging on to the academic status quo, when tracing the movement or isolation of any human population before 60,000 years, there is one cataclysmic event that calls into question a theory predicated upon the rapid movement or surge in migration from any population in ancient times.
The “global population was reduced even more when the Toba volcano in Sumatra erupted 74,000 years ago-the world’s worst natural disaster of the last 2 million years. This enormous eruption spewed ash to the north-west, covering India, Pakistan and the Gulf region in a blanket 1-3m deep and spread as far as Greenland … this catastrophe reduced the world’s population to between two and ten thousand.” (173)
What seems to be forgotten in these calculations of volcanic carnage is that the one direction this ash did not spread was to the south. Australia is the only country in the immediate vicinity that escaped the damage. More to the point, if, as popularly proposed, the African Homo sapiens were in transit trekking through the Asian sub-continent and just about to embark on a hazardous journey across large expanses to an unsighted location, surely such a drastic reduction in numbers would slow their progress? Equally, with such a dramatic decline in numbers, thus eliminating competition from other hominids or sapiens, why continue trail-blazing towards distant and unseen horizons?
Irrespective of these newly enforced realities, these African sapiens continued progressing onward. In response to her rhetorical question, “how fast did they move,” (176) Flood proposes a yearly rate of “4 km (2 1/2 miles) per year” (176) as being feasible. Ignoring the practicalities and inconvenience of constantly resettling, thereby rebuilding camps, finding new sources of food, water and resources, they doggedly kept shifting camp. Even when their numbers were decimated by this huge eruption, the pace never slackened.
The stance adopted by Flood, forces her to side with Jim Bowler, when disputing Alan Thorne’s findings in relation to his date (<60 3="" 45="" 50="" a="" accepted="" age="" and="" appropriate="" arrival="" between="" claims="" conservative="" determining="" earlier="" first="" fits="" he="" humans="" in="" is="" kya="" lake="" man="" means="" more="" mungo="" north.="" of="" parameters="" reached="" she="" span="" that="" the="" their="" timing="" well="" when="" which="" with="" years="">60>
No, it doesn’t! This date contradicts her earlier description of these hypothetical African explorers. Originally, as proposed by Flood, this exodus from Africa was characterised by a route and pre-disposition to remain within sight of the coast by choosing a “beach hugging route.” (176) She believes this “is consistent with people who had adapted to a marine environment and were able to use simple watercraft.” (176) Therefore, these “beach huggers” (176) would obviously have a preference to maintain the lifestyle they both understood and were most familiar with, or so it would seem.
In what appears to be in total opposition to the very nature of the first mariners and the lifestyle that logically follows: the archaeology of Australia runs counter to the behaviour and culture of any “beach hugger.” “Archaeologists Peter Veth and Sue O’Connor have shown that Australia’s earliest dated sites lie inland rather than on the coast.” 182 The only way Flood can accommodate this unexpected and unprecedented change in routine is to suggest that “it seems the first colonists headed inland and exploited big game on the plains.”
But the same opportunity surely existed while in transit through Asia. Even though there were very few hominids/humans to compete with after the eruption, they ignored the opportunities present and remained faithful to their coastal knowledge base and traditions. Bearing in mind, if this voyage occurred, these Africans were the most sophisticated mariners on the planet. Yet when arriving in this continent (sometime between 50,000 to 60,000 years ago), which has thousands upon thousands of kilometers of coastline, along with topography, vegetation, resources, and fauna unknown to them, the only feature of this new continent that was still familiar to them was the ocean. With these realities confronting this small band of fishermen and women, why is it they immediately abandoned all they knew and moved inland, and at some considerable haste? Surely their initial progress was tentative and restricted in geography and resources to what they were familiar?
Of course, the proposed appearance of Australian Aboriginals in America, would call Flood’s scenarios into question, especially so when dates of 30,000 and 40,000 years have been proposed by highly credentialed archaeologists. Flood has no choice but to dismiss out of hand any suggestion that Aboriginal bones, footprints and artefacts have been found in America. With a deft use of selective omission and reliance upon out-dated findings, she devotes one solitary sentence to this issue.
“While some researchers have argued for much earlier occupation of the Americas, the mass of archaeological, environmental and genetic evidence favours a relatively late initial human occupation, between about 15,000 and 12,000 years ago”
Flood makes no mention that the Australian Aboriginals were responsible for this “earlier occupation,” and would be aware that the bulk of the supporting data she endorses is often quite dated. If a tally of the most recent research was made, the “mass of archaeological evidence” would be far less massive.
Make no mistake, this is not a personal attack on Flood’s integrity or professionalism. She is merely one of many walking down the wrong track. Her comments and blinkered-vision are merely reflective of the prevailing academic status quo, and indicative of how pervasive the demand for more of the same impinges into the archaeology of nearly every academic who claims knowledge in this subject. In this respect, Flood’s book, along with hundreds of other publications, bear witness to the subjectivity of archaeological research in Australia. This is a place where fact and fiction collide, even more so when the First Australians are rarely consulted.
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2 years-the future: Constructing a New World Map, Mary Magdalene’s Dreaming, Forgotten Origin and Shunned Legacy.
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The Original Australians - Josephine Flood
Allen and Unwin 83 Alexander Street, Crows Nest NSW 2065
ISBN 1 74114 872 3 Published 2006
As abbreviated as our fact and fiction file is, there are undeniable inconsistencies contained at every conceivable level if bound by convention and a mistaken belief Homo sapiens first evolved in Africa. Our critique of Josephine Flood is not meant to be an attack on her research or diligence: she is merely one of nearly all who are united in their defense of the status quo.
Of one fact we are adamant: the conventional theories explaining the evolution of Homo sapiens, first emerging from Africa, are wrong on nine distinct counts. Equally, we are absolutely convinced that no less than 50,000 years ago Australian Aborigines set sail FROM, never to, Australia. They alone were responsible for introducing the concepts of religion, culture, art, democracy, music, boats, surgery, dance, astronomy, gender equality, and all the nobler pursuits and hallmarks of civilization to the rest of the world. Quite simply, they dragged all non-Aboriginal races out of the caves and into the light of the Dreaming. These truths are referenced in our Fact and fiction file not only through Aboriginal facts, but those of many highly respected Indigenous Elders, scientists, archaeologists, historians and religious traditions.
Any summary of these nine elemental contradictions should first begin by examining the error made, and to his credit admitted to and recanted, by Professor Alan Wilson. He originally claimed all modern humans descended from one African mother around 150,000 years ago. Within his accompanying calculations are two pivotal assumptions: that Australia was first settled by humans around 50,000 year ago, and that Australian Aboriginals exhibit about one third the genetic mutation rate of Africans (therefore 3 X 50,000 = 150,000 years).
However, the science underpinning his hypothesis began to unravel in the early 80’s. As Professor Cann remarked when analysing mtDNA throughout the world, “mitochondrial DNA puts the origin of Homo sapiens much further back and indicates that the Australian Aboriginals arose over 400,000 years ago from two distinct lineages, far earlier than any other racial type.” She went further in providing a sequence and time-line.
“The Aboriginal racial group has a much higher rate of mutations than any other racial group, which suggests that the Aboriginals split off from the common ancestor about 400,000 years ago. By the same theory, the Mongoloid originated about 100,000 years ago, and the Negroid and Caucasians about 40,000 years ago.”
Wilson was aware, if the Aboriginal race did indeed exhibit 10 times the genetic diversity of Africans, the timing of his molecular clock was fundamentally flawed. The only solution, come to Australia, and find out for himself. Along with his colleague, Mark Stoneking, came to Australia in 1985 and 1987. He found in their 1985 sampling “seven different mtDNA lineages,” while in 1987 they detected, from a survey of 21, “at least 15 different ntDNA lineages colonized Australia.” In his second paper he noted somewhat incredulously, that “at least 15 pregnant females were on the first boat.” But what if 1,000 Aboriginals were surveyed? With a 70% mutation rate, this would result in 700 pregnant females stepping ashore. With these facts at his disposal he was compelled to admit.
“It seems too far out to admit, but while Homo erectus was muddling along in the rest of the world, a few erectus had got to Australia and did something dramatically different-not even with stone tools-but it was here that Homo sapiens have emerged and evolved … Homo sapiens would have evolved free from competition out of a small band of Homo erectus 400,000 years ago.”
Unfortunately, all of these facts and findings were ignored, simply because it was assumed that only Homo sapiens were capable of constructing or sailing any form of boat. But that belief was convincingly challenged 8 years after Wilson’s death. Michael Morwood was not only responsible for the discovery of hobbits: he also announced that there were “Homo erectus voyages closer to Australia.” He provided convincing evidence that they sailed to Flores (21 kms from Indonesia and the second closest island to Australia) “between 800,000 to 900,000 years ago.” Of note is Josephine Flood’s observation that this fact “also makes evidence for an earlier human arrival of ancient mariners into Australia easier to accept.”
These equivocations and repositioning of themselves must surely call into question any proposal alleging an entry date of 60,000 years, but this is merely one of nine anomalies.
Huge advances have been made in the study of blood samples, of which two areas directly challenge any supposed African link. During the early 20th century 10,000 vials of Aboriginal blood were collected to “improve the safety of blood transfusions in remote areas.”
As noted by Josephine Flood “uniquely, full-descent Aborigines lacked A2 and B of the ABO blood group system, S of the MNSs system and Rh negative genes r, r’ and r.” Western Desert people show a distinctive genetic pattern, with the world’s highest value in the Ngene of the MNSs system.”
According to Flood, the Aboriginal people are “probably the world’s only racial group completely lacking in the S blood antigen.” The “world’s highest,” “only,” “lacking” and “completely lacking” are tenuous foundations if alleging any external connection. But she went further in her qualifiers in conceding that “Aborigines belong almost exclusively to A and O … tellingly, in blood groups Aborigines resemble Caucasians; Europeans are mainly A and O.” Of particular relevance to our case was that when discussing relevant “DNA studies” she admitted that the First Australians “form an ancient lineage, most different from black Africans.”
If anything, Flood understated the repeated lack of connection to Africa through mtDNA analysis. Roy Simmons (Commonwealth Serum Laboratory) is less conservative and is convinced these comparisons and “Australian data indicated that the Aborigines actually evolved earlier than the African Negroes. There was no blood evidence to indicate the African Negroes had any connection to the Australian Aborigines.” This is a theme repeated by other eminent scholars, Professor Lanarch was in accord with Simmon’s insistence the Australian Aboriginals stand alone. “We therefore have no hesitation in omitting the Negritos as the ancestors of the Australian Aborigines.” Keith Windshuttle’s extensive studies bear witness to the same truth, and he even extended the scope of non-contact.
He declared that “fifty years of blood genetic research has failed to provide any clue to Aboriginal origins … May I state here and now that our extensive blood surveys conducted in Australia, Indonesia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia … produced no genetic evidence that the Negro even entered the Pacific.”
Of course, blood is but one source of mtDNA, it can now be extracted from bones, and none are more ancient than those of Mungo Man (WLH 3). Claimed to be over 60,000 years old by Alan Thorne, our interest relates more towards the genes extracted. They are an “extinct gene”, which according to the front page of The Australian (January 9, 2001) has “shaken the human family tree” and “rocked anthropology.” Surely if extinct, by inference and logic, Africa is once again immediately ruled out of contention as being the ancestors of anything Australian.
Moving even further to more distant locations, a series of recent discoveries in America add yet another dimension and continent to Aboriginal pre-history, and was to begin with, completely unexpected. When examining a pre-Clovis skull, referred to as Luczia, Silvia Gonzales conceded that “skeletal evidence pointed strongly to the unpalatable truth” that “the first migration came from Australia.”
Dr. Walter Reeves was “very, very surprised that a variety of skulls found in Colombia and Peru (10-14,000 years) were the same race as the Australian Aborigines … and this will necessitate a reassessment of American pre-history.”
Indirectly, all we are doing is responding to Reeves’ challenge, and that of Professor Clive Gamble, who stated that the prevalence of Aboriginal remains in America created the need to “construct a completely new map of the world, and how we peopled it.” Hence the title of our first book: Constructing a New World Map.
Webber and Hubbe conducted the largest analysis of American pre-Clovis skulls (55) and compared them against every known race. They found the three closest matches are: ‘Australian mainland, Tasmanian Aboriginals and the Tolai Islanders (PNG).”
But it’s not just the undeniable resemblance to pre-Clovis skulls recovered in America that displays an Aboriginal ancestry, even the rock art resonates to the same theme. Professor Augusto Cardich claims the ancient art found in Patagonian caves “was due to one or more migrations” and that the Aboriginals “entered South America from Australia … some 14,000 to 15,000 years ago.” We would agree with the source acknowledged, but his timing is questionable, especially so when one considers that Silvia Gonzales is adamant Aboriginal footprints, dated at 40,000 years, have been found in volcanic ash at Lake Vasiquillo (Mexico). She is certain the Aboriginal people sailed to America by means of “island-hopping.” Moreover, dates of this antiquity are not an isolated case. At Topper, South Carolina, stone tools and a hearth, which was dated by Carbon 14 to be at least 37,000 years old, add substance to Gonzales’ claim. All of these recent discoveries merely affirm our hypothesis which maintains that Aboriginal people were indeed the first inter-continental mariners.
Returning to Australia, when examining 8 different sites claimed by some academics, and in each case challenged by others, to be 60,000 years old, there exist two major inconsistencies. First and foremost, 7 of these locations are at least 1,000 kilometres from every alleged point of entry if Australia was settled from afar between 50 to 60,000 years ago. This runs counter to logic, as these mariners were undeniably relying on the sea for sustenance, if so, why is it they immediately made their way inland in a strange and unknown land?
Yes, all dates and interpretations have been contested, but there are so many to choose from, and if just one is valid, the supposed African ancestry and entry is automatically negated.
1. Great Barrier Reef: 180,000 years. Charcoal deposits extracted from the reef in 1983 were determined by Jim Bowler, Gurdup Singh and Peter Ouwendyk to be indicative of fire-stick farming. Ironically Bowler is one of Alan Thorne’s fiercest critics in relation to his revised dates of Mungo Man and Woman being over 60,000 years old. We can’t lose either way.
2. Jinmium:175,000 to 116,000 years. Stone tools were recovered.
3. Lake Eyre: 135,000 years. Fragment of a skull cap dated by thermolumunescense.
4. Lake George: 120,000 years. As was the case at the Great Barrier Reef, there is a sudden and dramatic increase in charcoal deposits detected in core samples drilled into the lake bed. Gurdup Singh noted from that point on, the highest accumulations occurred when the lake levels were high, thus negating the chances of natural occurrence.
5. Devonport: <116 aboriginal="" adamant="" are="" at="" devonport.="" elder="" engravings="" headland="" is="" jinmium="" rock="" span="" tasmanian="" than="" the="" those="" years.="" younger="">116>
6. Jinmium: >116,000 years. These rock engravings have been vigorously challenged. The critics claim the science is sound, but “some grains have older optical ages because they received insufficient exposure to sunlight before burial.” How could this be verified? Outside being on site when the grains were buried, this critique cannot be proven?
7. Panaramittee: <75 1923="" 75="" a="" according="" actually="" ago.="" am="" an="" and="" be="" bold="" co-existed="" crocodile.="" crocodiles="" derive="" discovered="" engraving="" flood="" from="" going="" humans="" in="" into="" is="" it="" josephine="" may="" more="" of="" rock="" saltwater="" so="" span="" suggest="" terrestrial="" than="" that="" there="" time="" to="" when="" years.="" years="">75>
8. WLH1 and 3, Lake Mungo: <60 all="" almost="" dating="" different="" identical="" man="" mungo="" numbers.="" on="" producing="" span="" techniques="" thorne="" three="" used="" years.="">60>
At this juncture, we’d like to change tact and return to an earlier comment made by Rebecca Cann. When claiming an Aboriginal origin of 400,000 years, she made note that Aboriginals evolve from “two distinct lineages.” We are in agreement, as there originally existed two types of Aboriginals: robust and gracile, and this presents an insurmountable hurdle. Irrespective of whether WLH 1 and 3 are 60 or 45,000 years old, there is one skull that is contemporaneous.
According to John Head (Radiocarbon Dating Research Unit of the Australian National University) one particular robust individual call ed WLH50 is “more probably in excess of 40,000 to 50,000 years” old. He is not gracile, as is the case with WLH1 and 3. The brain of WLH 50 is “1540 millimetres, well above the average 1300 for modern skulls.” Yet if consulting the history books, WLH50 must have evolved from the same ancestry as the gracile Aborigines, and their supposed common ancestor had only just arrived in this uninhabited continent. If so, why is the most robust individual found to be the oldest, shouldn’t the differences slowly evolve through a gradual process-this is far too sudden. Of course, if the entry date was, as proposed by many others, 400,000 years, the obvious physical differences evident 50,000 years ago have ample time to emerge.
Of course, this supposed journey across wide expanses of ocean carries with it two obligatory pieces of evidence: a boat and the tools needed to construct a sturdy ocean-going vessel. The problem being for traditional theorists, the earliest evidence of such a craft and the utensils required for construction are both found in Australia (Kimberleys, WA). The oldest paintings in the world of boats were ‘discovered’ by Graham Walsh. They are dated at between 17 to 50,000 years, but according to Walsh “more likely” to be close to “50,000 years old.” The boats were crewed with 23 and 29 people. Walsh claims “they are massive boats, totally alien,” each has a “high prow used in open-ocean” and were made to be “ocean-going boats.”
In what can only compound the growing list of irregularities, an axe, the stone tool that would best facilitate the building of a sea-worthy “ocean-going” vessel, was first found in Australia. At Huon Terrace (PNG), which was part of mainland Australia until 8,000 years ago until the seas divided PNG from the Australian mainland, an axe was found and dated at 40,000 years. The next oldest axe, dated at 32,000 years, was found at Sandy Creek (QLD).
Even if every argument and piece of evidence presented has been misinterpreted, there still remains an elemental problem for those insisting the Australian Aboriginals are in some way related to Africans. The most popular reason given to explain why people would set sail to a location unsighted involving the successful crossing of close to 100 kilometres of open water, when seeking out new lands to populate, is through the pressure of increasing population or hostility. Unfortunately, the facts stand n direction opposition to such a proposal.
The “global population was reduced even more when the Toba volcano in Sumatra erupted 74,000 years ago-the world’s worst natural disaster of the last 2 million years.
This enormous eruption spewed ash to the north-west covering India, Pakistan and the Gulf Region in a blanket 1-3m deep and spread as far as Greenland … this catastrophe reduced the world’s population to between two to ten thousand.”
What was lost in translation was that the ash did not spread to the south (Australia). This world population estimate assumes Australia was uninhabited. With such low numbers outside Australia, this massive eruption negates the oft used scenario of increasing population forcing some to flee in search of a sanctuary and unpopulated region. Alternatively, this dramatic decrease provides the opportunity and incentive to set sail from the only region that escaped the carnage.
In concluding this overview we are strongly of the belief that the most convincing evidence we have is simple: every Elder who is versed in traditional lore is adamant they are in no way related to any peoples, whether African or any other race. There is no variation or disagreement in this respect, all we are doing is giving voice and science to an ancient truth.
From Forgotten Origins @ http://forgottenorigin.com/fact-or-fiction
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