Electrohydrodynamic Thrusters (aka Lifters)
Build a D.I.Y. Levitator
EHD stands for Electro Hydro Dynamics which is the study of the flow of a fluid under the effect of an electric field. The principle of ionic air propulsion with corona generated charged particles has been known as from the earliest days of the discovery of electricity. One of the first reference to sensing moving air near a charged tube appeared in year 1709 in a book titled 'Physico-Mechanical Experiments on Various Subjects' by F.Hauksbee.
Many other pioneers of electricity, including Newton, Faraday, and Maxwell, studied this phenomenon. Unfortunately, EHD is not a common topic in most high school syllabus, which is the main reason why most of the general public get confused when seeing such devices in action.
Recently, this effect has gained popularity under the less appropriately titled 'lifter' which due to the lack of knowledge of EHD by most people, has been related to some sort of antigravity effect. It is a well known fact that these devices produce thrust along their own axis, and not against the force of gravity as would be expected from an antigravity device. An EHD thruster in its simplest form is made up of two electrodes, one with a sharp edge, the ioniser and one with a smooth edge, the collector, which when powered by a high dc voltage (a few kV ) produces thrust against the surrounding medium, normally air.
For construction details, see below.
The top sharp electrode ionises the air. If the electrode is positive, free electrons in the vicinity will accelerate towards it, and strip off other electrons from the air molecules around the sharp wire.
A cloud of heavy positive charges is thus formed, and the avalanche of electrons approaching the sharp electrode account for the corona & ionisation current. In their mad rush from the ion emitter to the smooth negative electrode, the positive ions bump into neutral air molecules-air particles without electric charge. The force exerted on them by the electric field is offset by the force of friction caused by collisions of the ions with the neutral air molecules. As a result, ions drift through the air gap with an approximately constant velocity Vd, that is proportional to the electric field given by Vd=kE, where the proportionality constant K is called the ion mobility, the highest the value the more mobile (faster) and the less friction is offered.
The terrific wallop in these collisions hurls a mass of neutral air downward along with the ions. The distance in cm travelled by an ionised air molecule until it hits a neutral air molecule is given by the mean free path and is equal to 5E-3/P, where P=760 Torr at sea level. The larger the air gap relative to the mean free path, which works out to be equal to 6.6E-6cm, the more probability there is of an ion repeatedly hitting neutral molecules, and therefore the more impacts and thus effective thrust we get. During these collisions, the ion charge is not transferred to the neutrals.
When they reach the lower smooth electrode, the ions, still being positive, hit it and neutralise themselves. But the grid has no attraction for the neutral air particles that got bumped along. So the air flows right along the sides of the lower electrode, making a downdraft of neutral air beneath the EHD device. The fact that most ions are neutralised at the collector explains why the reading we get from ion measuring meters setup below such devices does not account for the measured thrust. In fact for a good EHD thruster, such a reading should be close to zero. If however, one accurately measures the force exerted by the air exiting the collector side over a flat surface, it is found that this force is equal and opposite to the thrust of the device.
An EHD thruster works without moving parts, flies silently, uses only electrical energy and when immersed in a fluid (air, oil, etc..) is able to lift its own weight together with additional payload. The basic design of the simple lifter has been fully described in the TT Brown US Patent N°2949550 filed in 1957 and titled "Elektrokinetic Apparatus". Even though T.T. Brown was fully aware that the thrust from his devices was due to ion interactions, lack of EHD knowledge at that time, resulted in very low efficiency operation of these first EHD thrusters. Shown below is one of Brown & Bahnson's designs described in US Patent #3,223,038, and an ultra simple EHDT made from aluminium foil, balsa wood and a fine copper wire.
While extensive research was performed in the 1950's and 1960's on the use of electric propulsion for interplanetary spaceflight, many promising concepts had to be abandoned due to the technological limitations of the power conditioning systems in use at the time. It is also understood that the research & development of ionic thrusters by NASA at those days was aimed mainly for interplanetary space flights, and the fact that ionocrafts need a fluid medium to work has led these fantastic devices to be largely abandoned by the scientific community since the late 1960's.
Note that the Biefeld Brown Effect is an effect apparently produced by capacitors or electrodes that are asymmetrical (of different sizes). This is what causes the majority of confusion around the "Lifter" devices. You can see from the images that one electrode is significantly larger than the other.
Most Lifters or EHD thrusters are powered with voltages below 30kV. It is said that the Biefeld Brown effect would become more apparent at more extreme voltages such as above the 50kV mark. The vacuum tests performed by Blaze Labs were performed with a Lifter powered at 30kV. NASA have also performed vacuum tests on a rotational lifter setup powered at 50kV. These tests are not 100% conclusive but it seems unlikely that a device based on the design of a Lifter will have any significant implications for propulsion technology.
For construction details, see the DIY Devices section.
DIY Lifter - An Electrohydrodynamic Thruster (EHDT)
The diagram below shows a EHDT in its most basic form. It consists of a fine wire, suspended above a sheet of Aluminium foil, by a lightweight insulating support such as balsa wood. If a high voltage DC source is connected as shown, a thrust will be produced, propelling the device in the direction of the positive wire. This thrust is due the motion of air, or any other dielectric (insulating) fluid around the device, as described below.
WARNING: This project requires the use of dangerous high voltage electricity!
In their mad rush from the ion emitter to the smooth negative electrode, the positive ions bump into neutral air molecules-air particles without electric charge. The force exerted on them by the electric field is offset by the force of friction caused by collisions of the ions with the neutral air molecules. As a result, ions drift through the air gap with an approximately constant velocity Vd, that is proportional to the electric field given by Vd=kE, where the proportionality constant K is called the ion mobility, the highest the value the more mobile (faster) and the less friction is offered.
EHDT Construction Details
Cut a strip of foil long enough to make three sides of a triangle.
Fold the strip into three equal sections, plus a little extra for sticking the ends together.
Using a small amount of glue, attach three lightweight balsa wood supports, and stick the two short edges of the foil together to form a triangle.
Loop a thin wire around the supports so that it is a few centimeters from the foil, and leave a long wire for connection to the power supply.
Connect another long wire to the foil, in a position away from the other trailing wire.
Flying the Lifter
The voltage required to power the lifter will depend upon its size but it is usually above 10kV. By moving the top corona wire closer to the foil, more thrust can be produced. If it is too close arcs will jump between the electrodes, causing it not to fly.
Place the thruster on an insulating surface (a table), and away from any metal objects.
Attach the two wires to the table so that the thruster can hover, whilst being held down by the wires.
Making a HV DC power supply for the lifter
For a tiny Lifter the output of a plasma globe PSU and a HV diode can be used, but for a larger device a larger transformer may be needed.
The picture on the left is of the inside of the plasma globe, and you can make the output of this DC by connecting it to a HV diode.
For larger lifters, a simple adjustable supply can be made by driving an high voltage coil with a power pulse modulatorand then rectifying the output with a high voltage diode and capacitor as shown here. The diode D1 should be rated for high voltage such as 20kV, 100mA as to withstand current pulses from accidental shorts. The capacitor C1 should also be rated for 20kV. The capacitor is not essential but it can help improve performance and add some protection for the diode. The capacitance can be any value, but bigger is better.
The pulse modulator allows you to vary the output voltage very easily so that you can get more control over the performance of the lifter.
From RM Cybernetics @ http://www.rmcybernetics.com/science/propulsion/ehdt.htm Courtesy of Blaze Labs Research
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