"All the world's a stage we pass through." - R. Ayana

Tuesday, 7 October 2014

There IS Plenty of Water on Mars: Curiosity Rover Makes Big Water Discovery in Mars Soil, a 'Wow Moment'

There IS Plenty of Water on Mars
Curiosity Rover Makes Big Water Discovery in Mars Soil, a 'Wow Moment'


by Mike Wall

Mars Rover Curiosity on Sol 85

NASA's Mars rover Curiosity is a mosaic of photos taken by the rover's Mars Hand Lends Imager taken on Sol 85, the rover's 85th Martian day, as Curiosity was sampling rocks at a stop dubbed Rocknest in Gale Crater. Image released Sept. 26, 2013.
Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Malin Space Science Systems

Future Mars explorers may be able to get all the water they need out of the red dirt beneath their boots, a new study suggests.

NASA's Mars rover Curiosity has found that surface soil on the Red Planet contains about 2 percent water by weight. That means astronaut pioneers could extract roughly 2 pints (1 liter) of water out of every cubic foot (0.03 cubic meters) of Martian dirt they dig up, said study lead author Laurie Leshin, of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, N.Y.

"For me, that was a big 'wow' moment," Leshin told SPACE.com. "I was really happy when we saw that there's easily accessible water here in the dirt beneath your feet. And it's probably true anywhere you go on Mars." [The Search for Water on Mars (Photos)]

The new study is one of five papers published in the journal Science today (Sept. 26) that report what researchers have learned about Martian surface materials from the work Curiosity did during its first 100 days on the Red Planet.

Soaking up atmospheric water

Curiosity touched down inside Mars' huge Gale Crater in August 2012, kicking off a planned two-year surface mission to determine if the Red Planet could ever have supported microbial life. It achieved that goal in March, when it found that a spot near its landing site called Yellowknife Bay was indeed habitable billions of years ago.

But Curiosity did quite a bit of science work before getting to Yellowknife Bay. Leshin and her colleagues looked at the results of Curiosity's first extensive Mars soil analyses, which the 1-ton rover performed on dirt that it scooped up at a sandy site called Rocknest in November 2012.

Using its Sample Analysis at Mars instrument, or SAM, Curiosity heated this dirt to a temperature of 1,535 degrees Fahrenheit (835 degrees Celsius), and then identified the gases that boiled off. SAM saw significant amounts of carbon dioxide, oxygen and sulfur compounds — and lots of water on Mars.

SAM also determined that the soil water is rich in deuterium, a "heavy" isotope of hydrogen that contains one neutron and one proton (as opposed to "normal" hydrogen atoms, which have no neutrons). The water in Mars' thin air sports a similar deuterium ratio, Leshin said.

"That tells us that the dirt is acting like a bit of a sponge and absorbing water from the atmosphere," she said.

Mars Rock Target Rocknest
At left, a closeup view of the Mars rock target Rocknest taken by the Curiosity rover showing its sandy surface and shadows that were disrupted by the rover's front left wheel. At right, a view of Mars samples from Curiosity's third dirt scoop after it was seived. Image released Sept. 26, 2013.
Credit: Science/AAAS

Some bad news for manned exploration

SAM detected some organic compounds in the Rocknest sample as well — carbon-containing chemicals that are the building blocks of life here on Earth. But as mission scientists reported late last year, these are simple, chlorinated organics that likely have nothing to do with Martian life. [The Hunt for Martian Life: A Photo Timeline]

Instead, Leshin said, they were probably produced when organics that hitched a ride from Earth reacted with chlorine atoms released by a toxic chemical in the sample called perchlorate.

Perchlorate is known to exist in Martian dirt; NASA's Phoenix lander spotted it near the planet's north pole in 2008. Curiosity has now found evidence of it near the equator, suggesting that the chemical is common across the planet. (Indeed, observations by a variety of robotic Mars explorers indicate that Red Planet dirt is likely similar from place to place, distributed in a global layer across the surface, Leshin said.)

The presence of perchlorate is a challenge that architects of future manned Mars missions will have to overcome, Leshin said.

"Perchlorate is not good for people. We have to figure out, if humans are going to come into contact with the soil, how to deal with that," she said.

"That's the reason we send robotic explorers before we send humans — to try to really understand both the opportunities and the good stuff, and the challenges we need to work through," Leshin added.

A wealth of discoveries

This image depicts the science result from the Mars rover Curiosity's CheMin instrument, showing an X-ray diffraction of the rover's fifth scoop of Martian dirt. The black semi-circle at the bottom is the shadow of the beam stop. Image released Sept. 26, 2013.
Credit: Science/AAAS

The four other papers published in Science today report exciting results as well.

For example, Curiosity's laser-firing ChemCam instrument found a strong hydrogen signal in fine-grained Martian soils along the rover's route, reinforcing the SAM data and further suggesting that water is common in dirt across the planet (since such fine soils are globally distributed).

Another study reveals more intriguing details about a rock Curiosity studied in October 2012. This stone — which scientists dubbed "Jake Matijevic" in honor of a mission team member who died two weeks after the rover touched down — is a type of volcanic rock never before seen on Mars.

However, rocks similar to Jake Matijevic are commonly observed here on Earth, especially on oceanic islands and in rifts where the planet's crust is thinning out.

"Of all the Martian rocks, this one is the most Earth-like. It's kind of amazing," said Curiosity lead scientist John Grotzinger, a geologist at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. "What it indicates is that the planet is more evolved than we thought it was, more differentiated."

The five new studies showcase the diversity and scientific value of Gale Crater, Grotzinger said. They also highlight how well Curiosity's 10 science instruments have worked together, returning huge amounts of data that will keep the mission team busy for years to come.

"The amount of information that comes out of this rover just blows me away, all the time," Grotzinger told SPACE.com. "We're getting better at using Curiosity, and she just keeps telling us more and more. One year into the mission, we still feel like we're drinking from a fire hose."

The road to Mount Sharp

The pace of discovery could pick up even more. This past July, Curiosity left the Yellowknife Bay area and headed for Mount Sharp, which rises 3.4 miles (5.5 kilometers) into the Martian sky from Gale Crater's center.

Mount Sharp has been Curiosity's main destination since before the rover's November 2011 launch. Mission scientists want the rover to climb up through the mountain's foothills, reading the terrain's many layers along the way.

"As we go through the rock layers, we're basically looking at the history of ancient environments and how they may be changing," Grotzinger said. "So what we'll really be able to do for the first time is get a relative chronology of some substantial part of Martian history, which should be pretty cool."

Curiosity has covered about 20 percent of the planned 5.3-mile (8.5 km) trek to Mount Sharp. The rover, which is doing science work as it goes, may reach the base of the mountain around the middle of next year, Grotzinger said.

From Space.com @ http://www.space.com/22949-mars-water-discovery-curiosity-rover.html


Free-flowing water discovered on the equator of Mars


Photo credit: Nature Geoscience / Alfred McEwen et al.

by Lisa Winter

Before it lost its atmosphere Mars was covered with liquid water. There is now evidence that certain areas of the red planet may still have free flowing water during certain times of the year. The results come from Alfred McEwen of the University of Arizona and were published in Nature Geosciences

In 2011, NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) provided images that showed dark streaks in the soil in areas near the equator. Though they faded over time, the streaks return at the warmest part of each year. The most likely answer is that there could very well be liquid water flowing on the surface of Mars under certain circumstances; an unprecedented discovery, since the atmosphere is much too thin to retain liquid water for long periods of time.

The trouble is, researchers don’t know enough about Martian geology and composition to definitively say where the water could be coming from. There could be pockets of ice underneath the surface that liquify when warmed, but the emergence pattern of the dark streaks doesn’t seem to suggest that. There is also a possibility that the streaks are caused by water vapor being pulled from the atmosphere and condensed into the soil.

For life as we know it to exist, liquid water is a must. The fact that there is still liquid water on the surface of Mars is very exciting, but space agencies need to proceed carefully. Any probes that visit these potentially watery areas must be completely sterilized which is a complicated and expensive procedure. If there were any traces of Earth microbes on the probe, it could easily contaminate that which it was sent to study. The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) is part of an international organization that defines good research practices in space and would shut down any mission that did not ensure the utmost of cleanliness for the spacecraft.

Of course, completely eliminating microbes is incredibly expensive. To completely prevent contamination, the probe would need to be heated using hydrogen peroxide vapor or ionized radiation to kill anything that might be stuck on the space craft. Similar treatments were performed on Voyager 1 & 2 and were about 10% of the entire budget that has spanned over 35 years. For a probe that would be able to land on Mars and analyze potential liquid water samples, the sterilization price tag could be too great to overcome for any one agency. Eventually, though, the mission will be done correctly, and having accurate and meaningful data will be well worth the investment.

From IFL Science @ http://www.iflscience.com/space/free-flowing-water-discovered-equator-mars

The Real Mars
 by Joseph P. Skipper
I intend for this report to hopefully shake things up a bit. It is made on my deceased wife Sandi's birthday and of course is dedicated to her. She was such a wonderful person and the light of my life.

It is also a companion to my book "The Hidden Truth: Water & Life on Mars." Like the book, this report presents much of the core better hard verifiable surface water in a liquid state evidence and living forest life evidence thought to be impossible on the Mars surface. Also all this evidence is presented here in plentiful enough sample numbers so as not to be regarded as aberrations or denied or ignored. Please access the book for more details and insight.

It is the hidden Mars demonstrating a shockingly different view that will astound some who only thought they knew this our sister world. Please understand that all of the evidence here is thoroughly documented and verifiable in the MGS official science data at the links I've provided under each image below. Link to this report and let your friends and others judge the evidence objectively for themselves.

The visual evidence is presented here in two sampling blocks representing the better of the discoveries. In the first block you'll see quite a few different bodies of water in a liquid state with some of these surrounded by the bonus of very conventional looking forests. The second block is all about samples of large form forest life Mars style none of which are by official consensus supposed to exist at all on this world.

Remember that the Mars surface is officially supposed to be completely dry and devoid of life. Further, the atmosphere is supposed to be 95.35% carbon dioxide (CO2) with only a very tiny .03% of water vapor and super hard frozen to the tune of as much as –220º Fahrenheit or –140º Celsius. In other words it would be a race as to whether an unprotected Earth human out in the open there would be speedily killed by too much poisonous CO2 gas by many times over or quickly frozen to death.

Note that, even though all of the following evidence is in the official science data and available there for verification, you have never heard a peep out of NASA or JPL as to its existence. So this amounts to the hidden Mars that it appears someone in control does not wish you and I to know about or at least also ignore. Also note that I have added a slight bit of false color to these online images to increase clarity and the viewing comfort level. In any case, the high drama visual evidence is as follows.
in a liquid state

Google 29 12 03.59 N— 81 53 24.79 W....................Verify M0902042 at MSSS and USGS.....................Verify E0801033 at MSSS and USGS
Verify E0801033 at MSSS and USGS......................Verify M0901354 at MSSS and USGS......................Verify M2100302 at MSSS and USGS

 Verify M2101233 at MSSS and USGS......................Verify M1201191at MSSS and USGS......................Verify M1300009 at MSSS at and USGS

 Verify E0301938 at MSSS and USGS......................Verify M1401647at MSSS and USGS......................Verify M1500073 at MSSS and USGS

Verify M0804688 at MSSS and USGS.......................Verify M0703768 at MSSS and USGS........................Verify S0600607 at MSSS and USGS
Verify S0800425 at MSSS and USGS
.......................Verify M0902835 at MSSS and USGS........................Verify S0702300 at MSSS and USGS

 Verify M0804110 at MSSS and USGS.......................Verify E0900320 at MSSS and USGS........................Verify S0800782 at MSSS and USGS

 Verify S0702623 at MSSS and USGS.......................Verify S0801170 at MSSS and USGS........................Verify S0800050at MSSS and USGS

As you can see in the first block, the real Mars is a planet with quite a bit of surface water in a liquid state and some of the water sites are surrounded by what clearly appears to be massive super dense old growth conventional looking forests. The second block backs this up with samples of a large variety of forest life most of which may appear a bit strange to us simply because it is unique to this world and different. Now, remember, this is on a planet that is not supposed to have even one example of any of this must less these 23.

When we see surface water in a liquid state this tells us that Mars surface conditions cannot be as hard frozen down to as much as –220º Fahrenheit (–140º Celsius) as NASA, JPL, and the official consensus would have us believe. Further, this many samples of it tells us that the relative multitude of evidence you see here is not an aberration and is quite real. It also tells us that the critical instrument data that says that the Mars atmosphere is 95.35% carbon dioxide (CO2) with only a very tiny .03% water vapor is obviously very wrong. Scientists dependent on computer modeling feeding such erroneous base data into their models will not achieve truth but only what others by intent and design manipulate and wish them to see.

So, does any of the above evidence look like simple rock and soil geology to you that you've seen countless images of on TV? This is pretty simple and obvious stuff isn't it? Yes the rock and soil geology is there but it is hidden under this super dense and massive cover of life thought to be so impossible. While it may take some rocket science mentality to get equipment to another planet to take exploration images, all it takes to interpret the images presented here on the question of life is a little common sense. Do you have that? Do you really care?

So why isn't NASA and JPL pointing the evidence presented here out to scientists and the public and encouraging deeper inspection instead of ignoring it like it didn't exist at all thereby effectively suppressing it? For that matter why aren't the science communities eagerly and aggressively pursuing this on their own instead of just blindly following NASA and JPL's lead like domestic cattle in taking the position that it’s impossible and just can't be? Also, why isn't the mainstream public up in arms about this being ignored and pushing hard for some real truth instead of meekly and submissively pretending like nothing is wrong?

Something is most definitely wrong people .....really wrong! The truth is that for all of the massive tax money spent on space exploration by the public over the years and decades, the public gets very little in return for it in the way of truths that I suspect are ultra important to us all. The real truths go to someone else coveting them who then make decisions affecting our countries, our world, and our people but with impunity remaining illusive in the shadows with sacrificial identities placed between them and the proverbial chopping block of responsibility and consequence.

Yes the evidence shown here are samples from my book The Hidden Truth: Water & Life on Mars and nothing new. There is of course more evidence in the book not shown here and also more enlightening. I've put in extra effort to make these online images as clear as possible but you'll need to refer to the book to get my take on this visual evidence including that you see here.

I appeal to you to purchase the book and spread the word about the evidence there and in this report. Not only is this badly needed by everyone, frankly book sales are now the only effective support for me and this work. With the passing of my wife, I now have no other source of income other than my own completely inadequate far below poverty level Social Security that doesn't even cover my very conservative monthly living expenses must less any cost of this work itself.
I'm often asked the why of the secrecy? For many, including many scientists, it just doesn't make sense. However, that's because most of you going about your everyday lives just can't identify with the psychology of those consumed by megalomania and their addiction to control and power. These types want to control any environment they find themselves in and expediency becomes their guide in doing so. This requires a great deal of money to buy influence that leads to power. Further, in case things go wrong, which often is the case where expediency rules and blinds, they wish to avoid any consequences. That requires their being hidden out of sight in the shadows and that in turn requires secrecy.

Secrecy comes to rule and then becomes the unquestioned social norm permeating our everyday lives. At the root of it all is flawed crass human nature. However, just above that is a very wrong but practical level cherished by the power/control addicted. Consider this scenario.

Alien technology far more advanced than our own but observed over time from a distance is determined to really exist. An occasional crashed or shot down alien ship provides a much closer hands on view of that advanced technology and those who weld it. The knowledge gained provides the difference in advantage of nations over other nations and ideologies. It is perceived that this advantage must be preserved and protected at all cost and so secrecy on this on a national level takes shape as well as power and influence and the exclusivity of the individuals who participate in it. Early lessons learned is that secrecy is very difficult to maintain and mistakes are made.

So evolving large scale secrecy is clamped down on ever tighter and tighter into smaller and smaller isolated circles excluding even leaders. Strong resourceful leaders object and start worming their way in. Strong independent resourceful leaders with courage are not desired from the power/control addicted point of view and it becomes increasingly advantageous to keep them out of the process and sidelined promoting only "cooperative" leaders conveniently vulnerable to manipulation. Over time the top is more and more stacked with "cooperatives" that are ruled by expediency and so bad things start to happen because their handlers have their eyes on different prizes of acquisitions elsewhere.

Any of this beginning to sound familiar? When addicted parasitic types run to much of the show, it can come as no surprise that things will eventually go in the toilet simply because they are parasitic addicts and can't stop themselves. They are at the root of the problem but no patchwork "fix" of their making is ever going to impact them negatively. So "self" always rules!

Because of the deeply ingrained secrecy and as long as it rules, the inaccurate perception of Mars as a dry dead world may prevail to the point of undermining our social destruction. On the other hand, simply because the Mars secrecy is based on lies and yet connected to 2+2=4 science, it is possible to turn this around starting with the visual evidence you see here as leverage. If this can happen, then secrecy all over the place will quickly be in trouble and mankind may be able to come out from under this smothering cover of pretence and deception.

Evidence like that you see here is the leverage to make this happen but it requires you in the public to get involved as it is never going to start at the top where suave smooth mediocrity prevails. Bring this report and the book evidence links to the attention of everyone you can think of all around the world including the media and regardless of language. Push and push until it gives! Make this go viral! Help yourself by helping your fellow man to wake up to the danger or we will all reap the consequences.

Joseph P. Skipper, Investigator
J. P. Skipper can be contacted at: jskipper@marsanomalyresearch.com

From Mars Anomaly Research @ http://www.marsanomalyresearch.com/evidence-reports/2012/221/real-mars.htm


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