"All the world's a stage we pass through." - R. Ayana

Thursday, 6 February 2014

Australian Original Astronomical Rock Engravings Will Rewrite World History

Australian Original Astronomical Rock Engravings Will Rewrite World History

Stone Circle

Original Australian archaeology serving astronomical purposes found in the Central Coast of NSW (Australia) is both so numerous in number (>2000 star markers) and diverse in applications (star markers, constellation alignments, solstices, plasma events and possibility of binary star system and polar shifts) and the implications of this call into question many mistaken assumptions of Original prehistory. We propose that this complex is a unique star map of global significance exhibiting sophistication previously unknown.

We are of the opinion the engraved astronomical markers found on a series of rock platforms is without parallel in Australia, and perhaps the world. In consultation with the appropriate Original Elders and Custodians of the Lore and Land, it has been decided the actual location of these sites will not be made public for the time being. Within a span of 3.5 kilometres there are at least 16 major rock platforms which contain no less than 2,000 star markers.

But to begin with our focus has been centred on a section of one rock platform measuring approximately 97 metres by 43 metres (see diagram 1.). Directly next to the area under investigation is an adjoining platform of slightly smaller dimensions and can be reached by jumping across without too much effort. Together the two platforms measure 135 metres in length and 80 metres at its widest point. Within 500 metres of this site there are at least 12 smaller platforms containing astronomical markers. However, owing to the massive accumulation of markers at what we deduce to be the central location, beginning our research at this point was mandatory and we literally took a rain check on the others.

DIAGRAM 1: Northern Rock Platform

Site Description

The section of rock platform charted ranges between 171 metres to 169 metres in elevation. We surveyed, plotted and measured all star markers found within the 5 grids (see diagram 1.), 4 are 10 metres by 10 metres and the fifth, which ran along the ledge, was roughly 14.5 metres by 10 metres with an additional small area of 3 metres by 2 metres running further south-east where the gap narrows to a reasonable leaping length. In total the area surveyed amounted to something very close to 551 square metres.

The platform is aligned to the north and made from sandstone. In assessing the causal agents responsible for these formations, it is of particular note that the rock platform is elevated, near the top of a ridge, nowhere near any watercourse or the sea, and there are 15 distinct natural channels that accommodate the negligible run-off that may occur. Any marking found within or immediately next to these small depressions, no matter how compelling its credentials may be, was not recorded.

FIGURE 1: Section of rock platform

Are These “Star Markers” Utilitarian or Natural Formations (Pot-Holes)?

To begin with, we had to determine whether these markers were made by humans or the outcome of erosion, rock weakness or some other natural agent. Many formations and depressions are, in our opinion, obviously natural, some are debatable, but we believe that the great majority were made by human hands and tools. To assist in deciding what is and is not natural we decided to use the guidelines employed by highly respected Rock Art authority, Robert Bednarik, with the addition of some of our own.

The most common form of natural depression are pot holes. Pot holes are normally created by water eroding the rock surface through alluvial flow, but there could be other formations and natural agents at play. Cup marks can also be created through “cumulative underground stresses,”[1] and are recognised as lithological cupmarks. Solution phenomena can also create pitting and chemical weathering. It is quite possible there is a small 2 metre by 2 metre section of rock at the far end of the first section of platform that has been subject to either underground stress or chemical process, and even though some of the markings look very artificial, we decided not to record anything in that area. Outside that small section we are convinced what has been found and registered has to be either artificial with variants of pot hole formations never before seen.

We believe determining what is not a natural occurrence is relatively easy, but nominating a reason these engravings were made and the function served is more problematic. As a first step, a simple process of elimination can narrow the possibilities. They are not grinding hollows, which “generally only occur on horizontal surfaces.”[2] On site at least 20 % of the circles/spheres appear on slopes of greater than 30 degrees. They are not “game holes”[3] used to trap any prey, nor are they spoor engravings (animal tracks/human footprints), rock mutates, storage holes etc. The only category remaining is by default, cupules, and there are some commonalities, but this generic label is something akin to the ‘poor man’s cousin.’

Bednarik noted that cupules are found in clusters, “often numbering several hundred (even a thousand),”[4] and that “almost all specimens are between 1.5 and 10 centimetres in diameter”[5] and the “average depth is between 10 and 12 millimetres.”[6] And it is in these observations we begin to part company, in that in the most general terms most of what we are charting falls into the general category of cupules, but there are some extensions and nuances not present elsewhere that deserve consideration. There are thousands upon thousands of ‘cupules and friends’ present in this 3.5 kilometre spread and according to Bednarik within the category of cupules, “almost all specimens are between 1.5 and 10 centimetres diameter,”[7] while of the 191 star markers recorded 32% had a diameter of 9.6 cms or greater. More than 75% of the markers on the platform had depths exceeding 10-12 millimetres, so while we believe these markers are artificial and share similarities with cupules, but that is merely a base point, as what has been found here is much more sophisticated and symbolic.

In separating what was a naturally created pot-hole or depression from the engravings made by Original people, Bednarik provided an identifying formula in that in a pothole depth exceeds diameter. He made note that potholes are often found in high turbulence areas, to which this platform is obviously not subject. Bednarik also highlighted the degrees of incline of the inner edge of the engraving as another distinguishing feature. His belief, which we subscribe to, is that the steeper the incline of the engraved edge the greater the chance it is artificial, while if sculpted over the ages through the actions of water, the process is far more gradual as is the angle of entry and exit.

Bednarik, along with nearly all researchers in this field, is hesitant to ascribe an inspiration or intent, although conceding “of the current theories, most associate cupules with fertility rites, or “increase ceremonies,”[8] and we believe that observation holds true in most cases, but not this one.

There are many factors that led us to the opinion there are at least 8 different types of astronomical markers (see figures  2, 3, 4 and 5) found within the area we are studying which perform and variety of duties, some of which will become more apparent as the paper develops. From an Original perspective, first and foremost is the result of our extensive consultation with relevant Elders and Custodians, and the enormous amount of Dreaming stories focused upon “on top,”[9] in particular the Seven Sisters (the Pleiades). It is well known that “the Aborigines were curious about the natural world. They were not only keen observers of the night sky but also took much delight in classifying the physical characteristics of the stars above them.”[10] So ingrained into the collective psyche of Original society is “knowledge of the stars to the Aborigines in their night journeys and of their positions denoting particular seasons of the year, that astronomy is considered one of the principle branches of education.”[11]

FIGURE 2: Star Marker part of the circular classification

FIGURE 3: Star Marker- part of spherical/oval classification

FIGURE 4: Star Marker- cut is not as deep but much sharper angles

FIGURES 5 & 6: Star Markers- note precision of cut and exactness of curve

Coupled with the advice Bundjalung Elder Gerry Bostock gave me when discussing this place, “as on top so below”[12], and the fact that the original Creation Spirits are also called Sky-Heroes, all of these Original truths led us to believe the chances are high that many of these engravings/constructions serve astronomical purposes.

When researcher Paul White was assessing the credentials of the Kariong glyphs in work not related to any astronomical issues we have raised thus far, he and his colleague came upon a set of star markers which immediately caught their attention. Soon after the positioning and alignment of these Original engravings of the night sky was fed into computer software at Sydney University and according to White, “the star charts reveal an unbelievable match with the star pattern above Gosford around the year 2,500 BC. The whole thing is a giant star map.”[13]

If so, how far does this “giant star map extend,”[14] and just as significantly is “the whole thing”[15] limited to mapping the stars? How sophisticated and ancient is this astronomical complex, and in what way if any does this site fit into the present expectations and notions relating to pre-Cook Original history?


We measured then marked out in yellow rope four grids of 10 metres by 10 metres. The fifth section ran along the ledge that divides the two platforms and made an exact measurement difficult, nevertheless we feel 10 metres by 14.5 metres with an additional 3 metres by 2 metres is reasonably close and sufficient for the purposes served at this site (see diagram 2.).

To effectively document the site in a way that can be accurately interpreted through software we took exact measurements of degrees from north, along with the width, length and depth of each star marker. Working from a visually identifiable GPS position within each grid, we recorded the relative positions within the 551 square metres through the measurement of distance and degrees from a central location. This gave us a precise visual representation of the site.

In assessing the possibility of natural agents being responsible, thus creating a gentler slope, we measured the angle of incline from the edge of each star marker then tallied the measurement in degrees into one of four categories: 1. 90 degrees. 2. 89-80 degrees. 3. 79-70 degrees. 4. 69-45 degrees.

In determining the ratio of depth to diameter, we first measured the depth of each marker, then divided the diameter/width of the same marker into that number e.g. diameter 70 millimetres, depth 7 millimetres=70 divided into 7=0.1. Any ratio above 1 means it is probably a pot hole as it is deeper than it is wide, the lower the decimal the greater the chances it is human-made and a star marker.

There are no less than five engraved types of star markers apparent within the sampling we have taken so far, and to be honest there should probably be five selections on offer. But the problem we found was in finding a dividing line between circles/spheres with an inner circle or inner dot (see Figure 7), so for now we are comfortable with three general categories: 1. Circle. 2. Sphere/Oval. 3. Other (which includes what could be a binary star system).

FIGURE 7: Star Marker- circle within a circle

Calculate square metres per engraving, but with attention paid to the distinct clustering of the markers and the apparently deliberate spacing between each set of star markers with the potential it could be a sequential record spanning back in time to ….

Collate a general broadsheet of the 191 star markers containing CTC, degrees from north, dimensions (depth, diameter or width and breadth), a set of incline categories, and concludes with something a touch subjective. But when assessing the calibre of those who assisted, this information seems entirely appropriate: rating the possibility it was natural or human made. 1. Definitely Human Made. 2. Probably Human Made. 3. Even Chance.

We also found it necessary to include some basic details in relation to positioning and size of star markers found at other sites we came upon during our time on country, along with the position and measurements of any non-star markers.


Our first brief was to determine whether this was actually made by humans. The inside slope of inner edge was estimated and the resulting angle was placed into one of four categories. In the simplest of terms the closer the inclination angle is to 90 degrees the greater the chance the formation is not natural.


Incline Degree Range
Total Number
89 – 80
79 – 70
69 – 45

Overall Total

With 98% of the markers sloped at 80 degrees or greater, the chances they are man made is heightened, but in what seems to only confirm the involvement of human hands, with one exception, all 191 star markers, when dividing the diameter by depth, returned a score below 1. The scores were placed in ascending decimal values (see graph 2.).


Value of Ratio
No. Star Marker
< 0.1
0.1 – 0.19
0.2 – 0.29
0.3 – 0.39
0.4 – 0.49
0.5 – 0.59
0.6 – 0.69
0.7 – 0.79
0.8 – 0.89
0.9 – 0.99
> 1.0
Overall Total

Only one star marker scored greater than 1, and there are other factors at site that convinced us to include this marker, but what is a relevant statistic is that 6.3% of the markers have ratio from of 0.6-0.9 while 92.2% have a ratio of 0.59 or below. In what only accentuates the overall shallowness of depth when compared to diameter, the largest group is 0.1-0.19 and contains 51 markers and makes up over a quarter (26.7%) of all formations examined. Next in quantity is the 0.2-0.29 group with 48 star markers (25.1%), and combined these two categories account for more than half of the sampling.

With 64% of the markers bearing a 90 degree edge and over 92% having a diameter at least twice the measurement of the depth, we feel confident in declaring that the huge majority of formations selected are indeed human-made.

Of course, the third approach employed in assessing the credentials of human involvement is obviously the most subjective but should not be dismissed so readily. Everyone involved has been on site many times previously and all have extensive experience in seeking out rock engravings and peckings. If a star marker was chosen to be recorded and measured we gave it a ranking from 1 to 3 (see table 3.). An entry in category 1 represented an absolute certainty that the three in that team felt it was formed through human involvement, 2 was regarded as being a highly likely human artefact and 3 was considered a possibility, but natural causal agents could not be dismissed.



Ranking of Chance
Star Marker Total
Absolute Certainty
Highly Likely

Overall Total

There is quite a range in diameter/width between the star markers, some are very small (25millimetres) others are over 180 millimetres and the varying sizes are spread fairly evenly throughout the platform. Of course the same pattern can be seen in the night sky, and “it is interesting to note that in Aboriginal astronomy it is not necessarily the case that only the brightest most conspicuous stars are grouped together when forming a constellation.”[16] We set out 11 categories and each tallies a 15 millimetre spread in diameter/width (see table 4.). The results are entirely in accord with what would be expected if trying to record the dimensions and size variation evident in the night sky.



Measurement Range
Star Marker Total
20 – 35 mm
36 – 50 mm
51 – 65 mm
66 – 80 mm
81 – 85 mm
96 – 110 mm
111 – 125 mm
126 – 140 mm
141 – 155 mm
156 – 180 mm
180> mm

Overall Total

These four findings, supplemented by Original advice and Dreaming stories, have convinced us these rock engravings serve astronomical purposes. Just as important, unlike sites like the Kariong glyphs, there are no claims or rumours these markers or even this platform, is the result of a hoax. The real question relates not so much as to what is being charted from “on top,”[17] but the multiplicity of the designs and sizing, and what that could mean.

As noted earlier there are in reality five distinct types of engravings, but since this paper is meant to be an introduction to these sites, simplicity is the best approach. Of the 191 markers recorded on this section of rock platform, 111 were circular while 80 are either sphere or oval shaped. We are strongly of the opinion this arrangement is not random, in grid 3 there are 14 star markers in sequence registering as perfect circles, in grid 2 there is a group of 9 circles, elsewhere the arrangement of circles to non-circles is evenly spread. There are two major peaks in complete circles and two of half the size and together seem to indicate that sequence in circularity was not random.

What was noticeable was the setting, there seemed to be six distinct panels each containing a cluster of stars, towards the centre of the platform there is virtually nothing engraved. Is it possible they are set out in chronological order, possibly each section older than the one preceding? As a result of this accumulation and vacuum the ratio of square metres to engravings (2.85 square metres per star marker) is a touch deceptive. In some areas there are close to 20 engravings per square metre, in others, none.

DIAGRAM 2: Star Map of 191 star markers

Something that was quite unexpected, and became more apparent the further we continued, related to the actual manner of engraving, or, in some cases dare we say it, cut, made into the rock. The incisions are so sharp and fine and some are barely a millimeter in width, and really had us baffled. Coupled with that, there are circles with a circumference that is perfectly circular- there is not even the hint of a straight edge all the way around. Most are much less precise and obviously the result of Original hands pecking then engraving into the rock, and in what confirmed that ancient process, we found one star marker fully pecked but the engraving had not begun. It was as if the person responsible was either prevented or chose to stop before completion. But there is a small but sizeable group of engravings that seem to exhibit signs of a technology never thought to be present in ancient times in Australia, or for that matter anywhere else on this planet.

The ‘other’ category contained what we suspect is a binary star, along with an 11.6 metre engraved whale and smaller dolphin (1.8 metres) beneath. But there were other astronomical markers/figures/constructions which were not entered into any category and merit special consideration. Their non-entry was due to the inclement conditions, and as a result I haven’t seen any of these sites. They were originally on our agenda before the rain came, but nevertheless, despite the lack detail and degrees, the photographs are sufficient.

Within two kilometers of the central rock platform are three engravings/peckings of original Sky-heroes that embrace that title in its most literal sense. All three serve astronomical goals, in two cases this information was shared by Elders and custodians of local Lore. One engraving is quite well known (and poorly misunderstood) and if included would provide clues as to where the other sites are, so we have decided not to provide a photograph or specifics beyond stating that its primary function is to mark out the alignment of a constellation. The other two are, we believe, different representations of Biamie’s (the First Creation Spirit) son, Duramullan. The first engraving (figure 8-this photo and the one to follow are of a very sacred nature and should not be viewed by Original women steeped in ancient Lore and ceremony) is claimed to mark out an ancient plasma event, a time when a massive pulse of energy released by the sun surged through the magnetic channels of the Earth creating auroras that lit up the sky at Gosford.

FIGURE 8: Duramullan possibly marking out a plasma event/Milky Way/Belt of Orion (Courtesy of Bob Pankhurst)

The third Sky-hero (figure 9) is a work in progress. None of the Elders were able to add anything, the image was unknown to them. What I did notice was this Spirit had a club foot and the other leg was longer, this is an obligatory representation whenever Duramullan is depicted, and in what only added to the intrigue his left arm was 100% longer and his left leg 50 % longer. It was as if some massive force was pulling his body towards one direction, could this possibly depict a pole shift, when the Earth’s magnetism was suddenly reversed?

FIGURE 9: Sky Hero possibly marking out magnetic reversal of the poles

‘So utterly sophisticated,’ this thought and reflex reaction has been prominent since our work on the star markers began, every new find expands the directions and nuances.

In what only adds to the horizons opened, the peck marks defining this Sky-hero’s body exhibit a technology that was not present in ancient times, anywhere. The pecking is extremely deep with very sharp edges and this is a very hard rock platform. We have seen nothing close to this definition, until this examination all the peckings we have seen have been more open and flatter. The amount of force delivered to create the depth and precision needed seems beyond the reach of every known variation of rock on rock.

Then there are the two sets of rock constructions, once again they are as unique as they are enigmatic, and we still have no idea how one had remained upright. And once again, we maintain both sites contain astronomical constructions. The three free standing rock stacks/cairns (figures 10 and 11) were constructed on one level rock platform of about 50 metres by 30 metres. What is notable is the complete absence of any other engraving or pecking, there is nothing but these rock markers. The most intricate of the three consists of more than one hundred flat rocks laid horizontally, which looks somewhat like an upside down triangle. That detail and cleverness in placement of rocks is most evident, the fact it can balance such a large rock on the top is testimony to a monument that was constructed with care and attention to detail.

FIGURE 10: Possible astronomical construction (one of three found on this platform)

FIGURE 11: Possible astronomical construction (one of the three found on this platform)

Not far from the three columns is another platform which is also free of all engravings but captive to thousands upon thousands of rocks. All over the platform are discreet clusters of small rocks. Much darker in colour and of a different make, these smaller rocks have been carried to this site to be carefully placed in creating a series of circles spread throughout the platform.

There are hundreds of platforms bearing a few or many star markers, they are everywhere and we literally stumbled upon half a dozen when walking back along the track from the main platform. Just veering left or right 5 metres was sufficient, and in each case there are more nearby, but owing to two days of incredibly poor weather that kept us in-doors, the tally of star markers are less than we hoped for. Equally, all peripheral sites were on our list but were lost to the rain and semi-cyclonic winds. Nevertheless, the little we have observed, charted and measured is ample in establishing some original truths and possibilities which we will expand upon in the “Conclusion/Hypothesis.”

Conclusions & Hypothesis

We deliberately chose this vague label as a device which allows some flexibility, until now we have tried to remain faithful to a general scientific approach, but the temptation to go off into tangents is too great and we now claim license to stray into conjecture and Original Lore.

We are confident the evidence and our analysis is conclusive, the markings are not natural. With that base accepted the next issue to be addressed relates to the time and effort required to create thousands of what we believe to be star markers. This is by no means an easy process, the sandstone is very hard and time dedicated to pecking and engraving was lost to hunting, gathering and sustaining the tribe. The engravings must have been very important to the welfare of the tribe, and we have heard many original Elders, most recently Gerry Bostock, declare “as on top so below.”[18] As to why there was a need to repeat this process thousands of times, the answer is not clear but there are possibilities and questions that must be canvassed.

There is one finding, which was not on the radar a month ago, that stands apart and is the base upon which any assessment of what has been recorded has to be made. For quite some time we knew of the star markers above the Kariong glyphs, and we had already mapped 172, and thought that was amazing. Never in our wildest dreams when ranging through the countryside did we consider that four figures was a remote possibility. But it’s not even the quantity that caught us unawares as it was the sophistication of astronomical applications and the nuances in how this astronomical map was assembled and categorised. Without doubt all that was found and registered was a touch overwhelming, and such was the evolving and rushed nature of our two clear days on site recording and absorbing was a big enough ask.

There are three sites that were never seen on site by any of us bar Gavin Bragg and Ryan Mullins when they were out on another ‘scouting expedition’ that stretch the celestial boundaries. We first saw what they found when Ryan brought out his camera during our enforced stay indoors, the rain and wind was torrential and until viewing these sites, a touch depressing. This lightened the load considerably, the two types of rock astronomical markers and stretched image of Duramullan, were the icing on the astronomical cake. We already knew another Sky-hero marked out the alignment of a constellation, and elsewhere the same Spirit also commemorated an ancient plasma event. This brand new addition only led to more questions. Are there other engraved figures nearby performing the same function, and what of the 16 metre whale, was its positioning and form reliant upon something else “on top?”[19]

Separate to the rocks and engraved/pecked spirits, and in what only illustrates how cutting-edge and advanced their astronomy was, we are confident there are no less than five different types of engravings on this platform and suspect each is specific to one type of star/meteor/constellation/etc.

Our estimate of a tally of 2,000 star-markers is extremely conservative, many platforms are yet to be seen, and it is possible some will never be seen. In what only accentuates the complexity and diversity of what was engraved, and the immediate need to protect and fully research all of these platforms, one deceptively small piece of rock which is claimed to bear hundreds upon hundreds of holes that represent the Milky Way, has either been stolen or is in safe-keeping. Local researcher and historian, Boris Branwhite, noted that “in 2002, a 1 meter by 800 cm (surface area) rock with hundreds of small circular holes was discovered at Wadalba (Central Coast, NSW). This sandstone rock appeared to be a Milky Way representation, with brighter stars having deeper holes. Aboriginal Elder Alan Moarywaala Barker identified this arrangement as a star map. This rock was removed by unknown persons in approximately 2009.”[20]

Then, in what only complicates procedures, all on site independently made note of cuts, curves and angles in the rock that required technology assumed to be never present in this country until very recent times. We are all of the opinion there are some engravings that could not be the end result of any application of rock on rock. Even the idea of a metal blade being responsible seems to fall short of the mark, some of the curves are so exact and uniform and couldn’t have been done any better today, and there are cuts in the rock where the gap is barely a millimeter wide. Irrespective of who was responsible, the fact remains the refined tools needed to fashion such delicate markings are not in the Original tool-kits as claimed by academics and books. This technological anomaly needs to be examined in more detail by a person with the relevant expertise.

We have made reference to the status of the Original Gods as Sky-heroes and the spread of the Dreaming stories describing the Seven Sisters, deliberately so, because it has a direct link to all that has been engraved into this series of rock platforms. The oldest astronomical construction is found at Wurdi Youang (Victoria) and contains a sizable set of rocks that marks “the setting sun at the solstices and equinoxes when viewed from the three prominent stones at the western apex”[21] and is considered to be between 10,000 to 20,000 years old. Star patterns, alignments, solstices, plasma events, eclipses, perhaps even binary star systems, this and so much more has been constructed or engraved into the rocks and positioned along one ridge. Not only is this site more numerous, complex and sophisticated than Wurdi Youang, with a base date of 4,500 years already factored in, it would not surprise in the least if one of these star charts is found to be older than Wurdi Youang.

Moreover, within this cluster of rock platforms there is a central point, one shelf measuring 135 metres, which carries at least one quarter of the entire tally. We have recorded details of 191 star markers, and there are no less than 500 engraved shapes still to be charted.

To the best of our knowledge this complex of platforms is not only the most intensive ancient star chart in Australia, but we believe it has no parallel in the world. In what only adds to the intrigue, not far away many other pieces of archaeology, both engraved and constructed, have been found and they are as unique and even more controversial.

It is agreed that “the oldest art on every populated continent consists of linear grooves and cupules.”[22] In fact it is thought there is a “cupule-bearing rock”[23] in Tanzania “dating to approximately 1.7 million BCE.”[24] Despite its longevity, no-one can trace this style back to its source or inspiration, and “curiously, despite its evident longevity and worldwide prevalence,”[25] it is “one of the least understood”[26] forms of petroglyph. The least we can do is add to the confusion. The numbers, refinement, variations on a celestial theme, complexity and nuances evident in this gallery of rock platforms open new horizons and ask questions rarely considered.

More has to be done, the area surveyed, along with all that still has to recorded, demands protection. But it doesn’t stop there, there is the immediate obligation to correct some of the sins of the past and rewrite humanities’ ancient history paying special attention to the Australian Original people’s role and impact. Past that point the archaeology is open to conjecture and subject to the need for further research. This area has only just begun to give up some of its secrets, but will only continue to do so if every step taken and word written comes about through direct consultation with the relevant Original Elders and Custodians of Lore and Land.


Bhathal, Ragbir. “Astronomy in Aboriginal Culture.” A & G 47, no. October (2006).
Bostock, Gerry. 2013.
Branwhite, Boris. 2013.
Cairns, Hugh, and Bill Yidumbuma. Dark Sparklers. 2nd ed. Merimbula, Australia: H.C. Cairnes, 2004.
“Cupules – Definition, Meaning, Description & History of Cupule Rock Art; Bhimbetka Petroglyhs.” visual-arts-cork.com, http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/prehistoric/cupules.htm.
Noris, Ray P., Cilla Norris , Duane W. Hamacher, and Reg Abrahams. “Wurdi Youang: An Australia Aboriginal Stone Arrangement with Possible Solar Indications”.” Rock Art Reseach,no. 28th Sept. 2012 (2012).
White, Paul. “Letter to Cathie.” 1999. 


[1] “Cupules – Definition, Meaning, Description & History of Cupule Rock Art; Bhimbetka Petroglyhs,” visual-arts-cork.com, http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/prehistoric/cupules.htm.
[2] Ibid.
[3] Ibid.
[4] Ibid.
[5] Ibid.
[6] Ibid.
[7] Ibid.
[8] Ibid.
[9] Hugh Cairns and Bill Yidumbuma, Dark Sparklers, 2nd ed. (Merimbula, Australia: H.C. Cairnes, 2004). 39.
[10] Ragbir Bhathal, “Astronomy in Aboriginal Culture,” A & G 47, no. October (2006). 5.28.
[11] Ibid. 5.27-5.28.
[12] Gerry Bostock, 2013. Personal Communication.
[13] Paul White, “Letter to Cathie,” (1999).
[14] Ibid.
[15] Ibid.
[16] Bhathal, “Astronomy in Aboriginal Culture.” 5.28.
[17] Cairns and Yidumbuma, Dark Sparklers. 39.
[18] Bostock.
[19] Cairns and Yidumbuma, Dark Sparklers. 39.
[20] Boris Branwhite, 2013. Personal Communication.
[21] Ray P. Noris et al., “Wurdi Youang: An Australia Aboriginal Stone Arrangement with Possible Solar Indications”,” Rock Art Reseach, no. 28th Sept. 2012 (2012). http://www.academia.edu/2064394/Wurdi_Youang_an_Australian_Aboriginal_stone_arrangement_with_possible_solar_indications (12/03/2013).
[22] “Cupules – Defnition, Meaning, Description & History of Cupule Rock Art; Bhimbetka Petroglyhs.”
[23] Ibid.
[24] Ibid.
[25] Ibid.
[26] Ibid.


Figure 8 Photo credits to Bob Pankhurst.
Figure 1- & 9-11 Photo credits to Ryan Mullins and Gavin Bragg.
Diagram 2 credits to Gavin Bragg.
Table 1-4 credits to Evan Strong.
Field research credits and assistance in compiling paper to Ryan Mullins, Andy Whitely, Gavin Bragg, Sonya James, Evan Strong and Sean Vandenberg.
Special thanks to Aunty Beve Spiers and David Fitzgerald for their guidance and Original wisdom.
Thanks to Nina Angelo, Lavinia Smith–Lewis, Paul Hoogendyk, Phoebe Hoogendyk, Neil Howe, Matthew Cowdery, Paul Sink, Valerie Barrow, and a special thanks to Binnah Pownall.

Australia’s Stonehenge: the History of an Ancient Stone Arrangement 40 Kilometres from Mullumbimby NSW


Stone Circle

According to Frederic Slater, who was the President of the Australian Archaeological and Education Research Society, an Original stone arrangement he and a colleague were investigating throughout 1939 is “the Stonehenge of Australia.” Assumed to be lost for the last 63 years, this impressive and complex sandstone arrangement is much more than a collection of rocks, signs and symbols positioned on a mound. According to Slater, “the mound is one of the oldest; I should say the oldest, forms of temples in the world, and dates back to the… advent of first man.”

Not only was the mound the first temple, the narrative and wisdom it chronicles is as profound as it is sublime, so much so that Slater claimed it formed “the basis of all knowledge, all science, all history and all forms of writing.”

These are extremely bold claims to make; to suggest that the very first language was spoken and recorded in stone in Australia carries with it many inconvenient historical implications. Modern humanity is assumed to have had its genesis in Africa. We are told a few restless inquisitive souls set foot outside African soil some 60,000 years ago and spread their culture and genes. In this theoretical construct, there is no room for Australia to be anything other than an afterthought and merely an African colony peopled by mariners who surely spoke before setting sail to Australia.

Bulldozing Australia’s History

Despite the unpopular stance advocated by Slater, his research was meticulous and the methodology sound. More to the point, such was the strength of the case he made on behalf of this arrangement being the First Language, in 1940 representatives of the Australian Government approached the farmer and threatened to confiscate his land because of these rocks. The landholder under threat was openly sympathetic to the archaeology being done, but realised while the stones stood he would lose his land, income and livelihood. Within days of the threat by Government, the stones were reluctantly bulldozed and the land was left alone. Slater had lost his proof and not another supporting public statement was made. The whole unpleasant episode was expunged from the public arena and Slater’s correspondence was apparently lost or destroyed.

And so this historical vacuum remained… until about three months ago when local teacher Richard Patterson was rummaging through some discarded files in the back room of the local Historical Society. Amongst the accumulation of papers and documents were Slater’s letters to his on-field colleague. Soon after, Richard contacted me and my team, and so the unraveling has began.

Rudimentary Language?

The First Sacred Language that Slater claimed to have deciphered is very complex, multi-layered and at his last count of “28,000 words,” far more diverse and complicated than what could be assumed in relation to the very first language spoken on Earth. We are of the belief this complex language spread throughout most of the coastal regions of Australia unified under Southern Law.

While historical and linguistic texts propose that the first tongue was crude and limited to the most basic emotions and objects, which then slowly increased in number and sophistication, here a symbol can have four different meanings. This formalised method of communication was made up of numbers, hand signs, stone arrangements, elements, trees, letter sounds, animal shapes, etc. The intricate combination of all manner of apparently unrelated themes and disciplines creating a seamless blend into one formal script, is in contradiction to the expected rudimentary linguistic starting point, and calls into question many assumptions relating to human ascension and development.

Leaving aside that reports from the Original Elders of Lore are in accord with the integrity of Slater’s claims, the logistics, technology and labour involved in creating this mound was unparalleled in this country… and deserving of further archaeology on site. By my estimation after viewing from a discreet distance, the hundreds of tonnes of sand, clay and sandstone that make up one mound deposited on top of this flat swampy plain is not part of the local geology. According to Slater and his co-worker, the closest deposit of sandstone was more than 20 kilometers (12 miles) away. The problem is, until the arrival of British settlers in Australia, no-one in this country had a wheel, pulley, wheelbarrow or metal chisel to cut and move the rocks 20 kilometres, and nor is there any other example in Australia of a mound or stone arrangement weighing over a tonne.

Quite simply, this Original construction doesn’t fit into any academic book or curriculum.

The Mystery of Life

What only unsettles the academic climate further is the content of the narrative contained within this stone arrangement called “The Mystery of Life.” The opening placement of stones on the southern edge, which looks very much like a medicine wheel, was interpreted by Slater to read as “guided by truth, man came to Earth through darkness from light of life that shines far off.” This extra-terrestrial theme of somebody or being coming to this planet from “far off” is repeated throughout these constructions, extolling that the “truth was brought out on wings to Earth” and “the Divine Light from afar to the Earth brings the soul to man.”

It is a site without parallel on the east coast of Australia at so many levels. The means of construction, significance, content, sacredness and real possibility that this arrangement chronicles the first time modern humans devised a formal means of expressing words and thoughts, are but some of issues that need to be investigated.

In what only adds to the intrigue, Slater is not only adamant that the ancient Egyptians were not only present (and most probably assisting in the transport of sandstone and fill) but they came in homage and reverence. He asserted that “there is no mistaking the fact that the Aborigines… gave not only to the Egyptians their knowledge and their foundation of hieroglyphics and their philosophy, but formulated the basis of all knowledge in the beginning, now and to come.”

Initial Observations

The archaeology conducted on site is still in the process of being compiled and analysed, however a few simple observations can be already offered. The chances are extremely high that this stone arrangement is an actual account of the First Sacred Language and conveys both historical details and a prophecy of times soon to come. The first mound is definitely artificial, its shape is too symmetrical, the placement on a flat swampy plain is dramatically at odds with the surrounding topography, and the sand, clay and sandstone that makes up this construction is in contradiction with its immediate geology. Throw into this mix confirmation from Original Elders and Custodians versed in Original Lore and history that this is one of, if not the, most sacred site in Australia, and we begin to see why Slater was so adamant that this is “Australia’s Stonehenge.”

Frederic Slater was an Egyptologist. He was the President of the Australian Archaeological Research and Education Society. Australian Government officials approached the landholder in 1940 and threatened to confiscate their freehold land simply because of these standing stones. These are facts. Slater’s opinions and our research of them is obviously up for debate and alternative explanations. But with the bounty of archaeology found on site and Elders confirming Slater’s translation, this stone arrangement is potentially the most sacred archaeological site in Australia.

There is no other explanation on offer.

About the author:

Steven Strong, along with his son Evan, has co-written four books: Constructing a New World Map, Mary Magdalene’s Dreaming and Forgotten Origin (published by University Press of America) and the soon-to-be-published Shunned. He has written over a dozen articles on Original history and lore for the National Indigenous Times, with four articles appearing in New Dawn magazine. With close to 30 years of contact with Gumilaroi people and tribes of the Bundjalung Language Confederation, and the benefit of extensive consultation with many Original Elders, Steve’s work is to reveal the story of the Original people, a narrative that was almost lost.

For more information visit ForgottenOrigin.com.

From Wake Up World @ http://wakeup-world.com/2013/04/09/australian-original-astronomical-rock-engravings-will-re-write-world-history/ and http://wakeup-world.com/2013/09/16/australias-stonehenge/

For more information about Australian Aboriginal people see http://nexusilluminati.blogspot.com/search/label/australian$20aboriginal
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