"All the world's a stage we pass through." - R. Ayana

Saturday, 13 October 2012

On Mars Things Only Get More Weird

On Mars Things Only Get More Weird

by David Talbott

Credit: NASA/JPL/Malin Space Science Systems

Mysterious domed craters and trenches on Mars point to electric discharge in recent geologic times.

In our Picture of the Day we compared photographs of small blue-gray spherules on Mars to the results of laboratory experiments by plasma physicist C J. Ransom. For his replication of these Martian “blueberries”, Ransom used a bed of hematite, a primary constituent of some Martian soils. By blasting the material with an electric arc, he produced an array of small blue-gray spherules and fused globules virtually identical in appearance to those seen on the surface of Mars.

Experiments of this sort will prove invaluable to our understanding of planetary evolution and geology. An electric arc is a plasma event, and plasma events are scalable, which means that the same formations can occur at virtually every scale—from centimeters-long sparks in laboratories to light years-long “jets” in active galaxies. Elementary structures of plasma discharge, now well documented in the laboratory, appear in lightning strikes, in auroras, on the Sun, in nebulas, and in remote galaxies.

The ease with which electric arcs create the Martian “blueberries” not only draws our attention to many apparent analogs on Earth, but to other larger scale formations on Mars. In our Picture of the Day for March 29 we showed images of a couple dozen “domed” craters on Mars, which have puzzled planetary scientists for several years. The spherical domes rest within circular craters and look very much like the spherules in Ransom’s experiments, which also rested in craters with partially fused rims.

On Mars the anomalous formations lie in the Arrhenius Region, some 36,000 square kilometer of terrain in the southern hemisphere east of Hellas Planitia. (More precisely, the region is located between 235° and 240° east longitude and 40° to 45° south latitude.) Planetary scientists have expressed their wonderment over these improbable formations while offering equally improbable guesses to account for them. A recent article published by R. Foxx, et al., listed five proposals, two of which (cinder cones and table mountains) they sought to substantiate as alternative possibilities, depending on when the domes were created in relation to the surface material in which they lie.

There is more to this region than the domed craters, as can be seen in the pictures above. We’ve placed a more complete picture of the region (click image left). The weirdly “wormlike” formations, exposed within craggy trenches, have provoked astonishment from scientists and a host of speculations about “artificial tubes” or “transportation systems” beneath the surface.

But the speculations in the direction of artificiality or intelligent construction can be excluded through consideration of similarly grooved and ridged formations in other contexts such as the Gorgonum Region (click image right), just one of thousands of examples.

Here, in brief, is an electrical interpretation. An interdisciplinary investigation of data concerning Mars suggests that in the past the entire planet was subjected to interplanetary-scale plasma discharge events.

Vast regions were excavated to depths measured in miles. Some of the material was accelerated electrically into space; some was emplaced back on the surface to form the ubiquitous but unexpected layering, whose origin is now debated by planetary scientists.

Diffuse discharges baked the surfaces of implanted layers as in a plasma oven, giving rise to hardened strata exposed in the walls of canyons. Arc discharges burnt and blasted craters into the surface. Lightning many times more energetic than that of thunderstorms we know today ripped across the Martian landscape. Many of the blast channels it left are mistaken for flood or lava erosion, a perception that can be easily corrected through attention to detail.

But in the floors of many of these channels appear glassified ridges, or “fulgurites”, as in the Gorgonum Region noted above. On a smaller scale the lightning’s transverse coronal filaments, always perpendicular to the direction of the primary discharge, formed and fused the same characteristic ripples in the regolith of the Arrhenius Region. In some channels, multiple lightning strokes have cut terraces, each with its faint fulgurite ridges. The existence of these mysterious ridges is a crucial prediction of the Electric Universe.

In the electric view, therefore, both the domed craters and the accompanying trenches of the Arrhenius Region are the result of cosmic lightning strikes. Where an electric arc “stuck” briefly for a while to a point on the surface before being extinguished, it produced domed craters, as in Dr. Ransom’s experiments.

Dr. Ransom has informed us that in his experiments, if a lower energy arc was extinguished before a complete spherule was formed, the result was a dome. The fully rounded spherules were the result of higher-energy discharges. From the Electric Universe viewpoint, the domed craters and the “wormychannels simply reflect two common electrical discharge effects on a surface.

We expect to find them in close association.

And we can confidently predict that more extensive laboratory experimentation will confirm the association in every important detail.

from Thunderbolts Website
via http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/electric_universe/esp_electricuniverse11.htm

It’s 99% Certain There is Life On Mars

Soil samples from Viking 1 Lander
which visited Mars in 1976
Mathematical analysis shows strong sign of organics
Samples had been dismissed as contaminated
'99% probability of life' claims one scientist

by Rob Waugh

In July 1976, the Viking 1 probe touched down on Mars and failed to find traces of life - but now, three decades later, scientists think the experiment was flawed.

VIking 1 did find evidence of extraterrestrial microbes in soil samples from the Red Planet.

Mathematical analysis of the samples concluded that salts in the soil on Mars 'threw off' initial estimates - and that the soil samples show strong evidence of microbial life.

The new analysis looked for 'complexity' in the samples - an indication of life.

To the surprise of the scientists, they found it.
The Viking 1 lander which arrived on Mars in July 1976.
Scientists now believe there is strong evidence of microbial life in the soil samples analyzed by Viking 1

Viking 1 launched by a Titan Centaur rocket
from Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

'This suggests a robust biological response,' say the researchers, from the University of Siena and California's Keck Institute.

'These analyses support the interpretation that the Viking LR experiment did detect extant microbial life on Mars.'
The reassessment was prompted by the discovery of 'perchlorates' in the soil at the landing site of another Mars lander, Phoenix, in 2008.

The presence of the chemicals in Viking's samples had led scientists to conclude the samples were contaminated. The scientists behind the experiment remain divided over how conclusive the evidence for life on Mars is.

Christopher McKay of NASA's Ames Research Centre said, in an interview with Discovery News,
'Finding organics is not evidence of life or evidence of past life. It's just evidence for organics.'

'The ultimate proof is to take a video of a Martian bacteria. They should send a microscope - watch the bacteria move,' said Josheph Miller of USC's Keck School of Medicine.

'On the basis of what we've done so far, I'd say I'm 99 percent sure there's life there.'

Future Mars missions may be able to settle the question.
The Viking 1 lander on display at the National Air and Space museum:
Did the craft discover evidence of life on Mars?

Mars skyline at sunset, pictured from the Viking lander

NASA's Mars Science Laboratory nicknamed Curiosity,
a nuclear powered rover vehicle
One forthcoming unmanned mission is the new Mars Science Laboratory rover, called Curiosity, scheduled for launch in November.

The $2.5 billion nuclear-powered machine will land on Mars' surface with a suite of 10 science instruments to try to determine if conditions are favorable for life.

Another key Mars mission is scheduled for 2016. Called the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter, it will carry five science instruments and will study gases in Mars' atmosphere, including methane, for evidence of biological or geological activity.

‘The instruments on that atmospheric mission have a factor of 100 to 1,000 increase in sensitivity over what is currently available from Mars orbiters or from ground observations,’ said Mark Allen, Ph.D., who is the U.S. project scientist for the 2016 Mars mission.

from DailyMail Website via http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/marte/marte_vida04.htm

For more information about Mars see http://nexusilluminati.blogspot.com/search/label/mars
For more information about plasma see http://nexusilluminati.blogspot.com/search/label/plasma

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