"All the World's a Stage We Pass Through" R. Ayana

Sunday, 8 July 2012

The Future of Clean Energy and Overunity Explained

The Future of Clean Energy and Overunity Explained

by Matt Imber

http://www.pureenergysystems.com/news/Examiner/Rasa_free_energy_320.jpgWhen I first began working professionally on R&D and the prospects of commercailization of emerging clean energy technology to facilitate a goal from my boss, co-owner of over 700 buildings slated to go off the grid using onsite, off-grid power generation for use in small businesses he owns (most of which are restaurants), I soon found that we both agree that although solar and wind energy generation technologies are vital components of the clean alternative energy market, these only provide a relatively small amount of power, and are not practical for use in typical small or medium sized businesses, or even for most residential needs.  

Not only are solar PV panels and wind turbines impractical for use in urban settings (and costly), they simply don’t provide nearly enough power to run a small business with, even if enough roof space or other property space is available for the energy generation equipment.  Moreover, the payback period for a 10 kilowatt (kW) off-grid solar PV energy system can be 7 years or more, further impeding its development.  Supplying one’s own clean power using solar or wind has simply been cost prohibitive, despite its environmental benefits or tax incentives to invest in it.

In light of this, many businesses wishing to “go green” electrically will opt out of the supply side and instead address the demand side of the energy ledger, simply because it is something within their control and cost parameters to do.  Typically this is done by implementing an energy reduction plan.  Reducing energy costs by replacing old, inefficient HVAC equipment with high efficiency units, switching to efficient lighting, reducing or eliminating wasteful electrical loads,  increasing insulation and switching large loads to off-peak hours, etc. can afford substantial savings in energy costs, as high as 25% in some cases.  But again, the payback period for this kind of investment into energy reduction can be long and it does not address the larger portion of energy costs – the supply side. 

What is desperately needed is an unconventional energy generation device that is safe, affordable, and reliable and can supply the entire energy load demanded by any given building, while using minimal space to do this.  Ideally, this generator would provide its own renewable source of fuel to power itself, and not be environmentally destructive (emitting no greenhouse gasses or other forms of pollution). 

Ideally, the upfront capital costs of this generator would be realized within a 2 year period, by offsetting electrical energy costs that are no longer paid to the retail electric provider (REP), or electric utility.   A much shorter duration for a return on investment can be realized if a substantial portion of energy can be sold back to the electrical grid using net metering.

While this “green machine” may seem by many to be decades away from development, it may come as a surprise that many inventions over the past century, and particularly the past 2 decades, have already been developed and have proven their claims of providing clean, free energy and fit all of the above stated criteria.  Some notable examples of such devices include the Edwin V. Gray Motor, the John Bedini Motor, the Joseph Newman Motor, the Stanley Meyer Water Fuel Cell, and more recently, Randell Mills’ Blacklight Power Process.  Many other inventors who have purportedly developed similar devices can be found here: http://peswiki.com/energy/Directory:Inventors#Inventors

There are many reasons that have kept most of these devices from being commercially available, and some of these reasons are controversial in nature and debatable.  However, the validity of many of these over-unity (OU) devices is no longer debatable and should not be overlooked, especially with worsening global economic and environmental crises.  It is imperative that in order to bring to the market an efficient non-polluting alternative energy supply that we look into unconventional and “new” technologies, so that this science is brought forward commercially quickly, and lessens the impending energy crisis and the environmental harm the current conventional energy supply model creates.  The need to go beyond solar and wind is real and growing in its urgency daily.  A vast opportunity now exists in the decentralized, distributed power generation market.  This opportunity can be seized upon by many in the public & private sector using the right breakthrough technology.

http://yowusa.com/radio/cttc/2005/cttc-0305-34/CTTC1Q0506_inventors.jpgOriginally, this report was not intended to explain any net gain in energy from any given device, but mainly to show some possibilities to achieve a net electrical energy gain by combining two or more related energy products.  But it is evident that in order to succeed in the “free energy” field -- whether it’s from an investment standpoint or as a manufacturer or developer of such an exotic energy product -- an explanation of the originating energy source is needed. 

There is simply too much resistance to a majority of the technology revealed in this report from the general public, academia & engineering field to let this subject go unexplained.   As the saying goes, “you can’t get something from nothing.”  Or, to quote a famous line from Star Trek:  “I can’t change the laws of physics!”  Maybe you can’t change or break the laws of physics, but perhaps there are loopholes (exceptions) to these laws that explain such energy devices’ abilities to produce more power that what was put into them.

The cold, hard fact is that the laws of physics are now being rewritten as new information is known and confirmed from the academic world of quantum physics.  It has only been recently confirmed (mid 2000’s) that about 70% the observable universe is composed of dark energy.  Source: http://www.nasa.gov/missions/deepspace/f_dark-energy.html  and

Unlike gravity, dark energy is a repulsive force that is quickening the expansion of the entire universe by creating more empty space, and driving galaxies away from each other.  See also: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UtbGPcElW4g&eurl=http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Galactic_Sea_of_Energy

What exactly is dark energy, and what does this have to do with the energy products in this report?  Dark energy is not yet fully understood because it can not be directly measured, even though it exists in the space between the stars as well as the space between the atoms in our bodies and all matter in the universe.  (See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_energy ). 

Although one cannot yet directly measure dark energy, the effects of dark energy on matter and light are what can be measured.  Dark energy (not to be confused with dark matter), may in fact be the same exact thing as Zero-Point Energy (ZPE), which is a huge energy source that behaves in an opposite fashion to electrical energy.  It is called zero-point energy because of the fact that if you chill down any matter to near absolute zero (0 degrees Kelvin), you still have a measurable movement within the matter at the atomic or molecular level, and therefore energy  (See  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absolute_zero ).  Liquid helium remains a liquid near absolute zero because of zero-point energy (dark energy).  ZPE has been around since the beginning of time, and will be around in colossal abundance, until the end of time.

Zero-Point Energy (or ZPE) is a highly dynamic, constantly fluctuating maelstrom of positrons (antimatter) and similar antiparticles that constantly come into, and out of existence, much like bubbles under a waterfall, constantly forming, popping and forming again. (See: http://www.qveng.com/primer.html  and http://www.cheniere.org/correspondence/012202a.htm ).  ZPE is, in essence, the energy of the vacuum, or the energy from nothing.  Theoretically, at the quantum level, zero-point energy is rapidly fluctuating and constantly changing.  At the universal macro level, ZPE is relatively constant & evenly distributed.  While this is a difficult concept to grasp, it remains a scientific fact.  The amount of ZPE is staggering; “Today we know that one cubic centimeter of pure vacuum contains enough energy to condense into 1080 – 10120 grams of matter!” (See: http://www.cheniere.org/books/excalibur/moray.htm ).

http://www.adamite.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Tesla-coil-300x266.jpgWhat is also a well known fact is a simplified statement of basic thermodynamics, which states: energy can not be created nor destroyed; only converted from one form of energy into another.  So, when you take into account the energy that artificially goes into a device, and compare this input energy against the output energy, plus any wasted heat energy the device puts out, the total amount will always equal out (energy in will equal energy out).  One form of energy is converted into other forms, but the two compared will even out. 

For example, a small motor that takes in 25 watts of electrical energy to drive a fan will convert some of the input electrical energy into mechanical energy to move the fan blade, and some will get converted into heat, which is not used for the work of the motor and wasted.  If you add up the mechanical torque energy & the heat energy that is created from the motor, plus any additional energy (in whatever form) that is a result of the motor’s operation, it will equal the amount of the energy which was supplied artificially to the motor.  The word “artificially” is stressed here because this becomes a critical part of understanding the efficiency of an electrical device or energy product.  It is also critical to understanding how zero point energy explains the excess energy gain in many of the energy products in this report. 

The fact that most forms of energy can be mathematically converted into a thermal (heat) value is also important to note when considering the efficiency of any given energy product (See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_efficiency ).  You divide the total output of energy produced by the device by the total amount of energy put into the device artificially.  In other words, you divide what you get by what you paid for in order to achieve this efficiency rating.  Thermal efficiency is typically used to measure efficiencies of devices that generate heat, either as a primarily output, or as a waste or byproduct.  Common examples include internal combustion engines and electric or gas heaters.  Since any measurable energy source (such as wattage or horsepower) can be converted mathematically into a heat value (BTU), the thermal efficiency can be applied to any mechanical energy device. 

The most common of this measurement is known as Coefficient of Performance, or COP efficiency.  It is defined by Tom Bearden as:  “the total useful output (energy or work) divided by only that energy input that the operator furnishes.”   It specifically does not consider any extra energy the active environment may input.  (See: http://www.icekubesystems.com/pdf/COP.htm ). 

A simpler and much more important method of measuring a mechanical device’s efficiency can be called the Overall Efficiency, which is Tom Bearden defines as: “the total useful output (energy or work) divided by the total energy input.” THIS method of efficiency measurement takes into account the input energy that comes from both artificial means and natural/environmental means. (See: http://www.cheniere.org/correspondence/071403a.html ).  COP efficiency can easily include naturally occurring forms of energy into the equation, such as wind or solar energy inputs, but a COP rating typically leaves these energy sources out of the equation altogether.  In most cases, the natural forms of input energy are not considered in COP efficiency at all.  This usually results in efficiency ratings of electrical motors and most mechanical/energy devices to have a COP efficiency of less than 1.0.  Going over 1.0 would mean going over 100% efficient, which would violate the first law of the conservation of energy.  A common misperception is that a mechanical energy device can never exceed a COP efficiency value of 1.0 (1.0 = 100%).  But this is not true even when you consider a refrigerator, or a heat pump.  The COP rating is applied to refrigerators or heaters because the efficiencies of these devices often exceed 100%.  (See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_efficiency#Heat_pumps_and_refrigerators .  For a more detailed explanation with drawings, please see: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/Hbase/thermo/heatpump.html .

The few previous links above are helpful to understand the various means to rate a mechanical and electrical device’s efficiency, but this subject becomes very confusing because of the many formulas and ways to rate efficiencies, depending on the device being measured.  Tom Bearden’s approach simplifies this with a simple formula that works for any mechanical and electrical device.  The simple formula involves dividing the energy outputted from a device to do the intended work by the total amount of that went into the device – whether by artificial or natural means; or, energy paid for by the operator of the device, or that comes from the natural environment.  This method specifically takes into account naturally occurring forms of energy like wind, solar or ZPE as the input energy into the device.   Moreover, the Bearden formula can be applied to any electrical and mechanical device, which makes this formula applicable to motors, alternators, IC engines, heaters, etc.  See: http://www.cheniere.org/correspondence/071403a.html .

By applying the simple Bearden COP formula, you can have a device which may be 60% efficient (relative to its thermal efficiency and ability to convert electricity in torque or heat), and make the overall COP efficiency of the device greater than 1.0, making it over 100% efficient, or infinitely efficient, depending on the free energy source.  This does not violate thermodynamic laws of conservation.  This is because there are several free energy sources that are available to all, and some of these energy sources are infinite in their availability. 

Consider a large waterfall, or a manmade dam.  As long as the water supply is there to fill the river, streams or lake, there will always be a constant potential for hydroelectric electric power.  There is only an initial investment into the generator, and occasional maintenance costs to consider, but these costs are negligible when considering the continuous and indefinite energy supplied by using hydroelectric power.  If one’s home electrical power was entirely supplied by a generator driven by a river or stream on the property, every electrical device in the home can be considered to be infinitely efficient.  


The same idea can be applied to solar power and wind power, but these power sources differ from hydroelectric power in two important ways;  Solar power, although available everywhere the sun is shining, is a relatively more costly free energy source than hydroelectric in terms of its initial investment costs. 

Solar power (whether photovoltaic, or solar/thermal) is also intermittent, whereas hydroelectric power is essentially an infinitely free energy source.  Wind power is also a free environmental energy source, but is even more intermittent compared to solar, and is less efficient in the way it typically converts the wind into electrical power.  Wind power has an advantage over solar power in that it is cheaper on its relative investment cost, and is available day or night.  Wind and solar power have advantages over hydroelectric in that they are available almost anywhere on the planet’s surface, where hydroelectric power is very geographically dependent.  99.9% of the population doesn’t have access to a running river or stream, but do have access to wind and solar energy.

Both wind and solar power have a perceived disadvantage over hydroelectric power, in that their power must either be used once generated, or stored if not used to power a load.  But in actuality, any electrical power -- including hydroelectric -- must be used as it’s produced, otherwise it must be stored or go to waste.  Solar PV power is typically stored before being used.   This is because solar photovoltaic (PV) cells convert light (photonic) energy from the sun directly into direct current (DC) electricity.  Since most electrical devices are powered to run on utility-provided AC power, the DC power from a solar PV cell must first be converted into AC power before consumed.  Solar PV power is ideal for storage, because it is already in the only known form that can be stored electrically; in DC (direct current).  


The DC power from solar cells are typically sent directly into a bank of lead-acid chemical batteries, and then the stored energy in the battery bank is converted (inverted) into AC (alternating current) via an inverter circuit, to supply power to a building or other AC load.  Wind power output can be in either AC or DC.  If a wind turbine produces AC power, it’s produced with an onboard alternator which is turned by the wind and sends the varying AC power to a rectifier circuit, which converts the alternating current into direct current (DC).  The DC power is then sent to a battery bank, where it can accumulate (charge up the batteries).  From the battery bank, the power is then inverted back into AC, so that it may power most electrical loads.

If you were to use a small scale example such as a home or small business that used as much wind and solar energy as it could on a half acre lot, you could generate a constant average of 10 kilowatts or more using conventional PV cells and wind turbines.  This would be enough to power the home or business, plus perhaps provide an excess amount of energy in some cases that can be sold back to the electrical energy grid.  More importantly, you can apply the Tom Bearden’s COP efficiency formula to your entire energy load and be consider every electrical device in the load to be infinitely (over 100%) efficient.  

There’s just one main catch; the investment costs that went into the installation of the solar PV panels, wind turbines and the electrical storage and related equipment.   The cost for this could be as high as $30,000.  This initial investment cost must first be realized through electrical energy savings (money not paid to the utilities, combined with any money paid back by the utility for supplying the solar & wind power back to the grid).  If the property in question was previously consuming 10kW on a constant basis, it would consume about 7,200 kWh per month.  At the average U.S. electrical energy market rate (~$0.15/kWh), the annual cost for such electrical consumption would be around $86,400.  It would take about 3 years to realize a return on the $30,000 investment of the solar and wind power.  After the 3 years, however, the building’s electrical load is being supplied by free energy, and the COP efficiency of this load can be considered infinite (over 100%). 

There are other drawbacks to consider;  the building may still be using natural gas for heating and/or cooking, and these utility costs are substantial – especially natural gas, or petroleum-based heating.  You may be running all of the electrical devices for free, but any gas powered energy units -- especially a natural gas-powered heater -- must be considered.  Another important drawback to consider of such a solar and/or wind generation system is the unpleasant aesthetics of the solar panels and wind turbines.  The solar panels alone would occupy almost every square inch of roof space.  The wind turbine(s) would require a 40 foot mast or higher structure to access proper wind velocity for optimal generation, and although wind turbines are not loud, they are not entirely quiet and can be a source of complaint -- especially in an urban area.  

Wind turbines also pose a slight risk to nearby structures during excessively high winds during a storm and can cause bodily harm or property damage if the turbine is damaged from excessive wind speeds such as a tornado or hurricane.  Because of these drawbacks, wind and solar power are not a practical energy source for most small businesses or for most urban residents and homeowners. 

Nonetheless, many people in rural areas and urban settings still access these energy sources, and obtain energy for free, even if they continue to pay other utilities for energy needs.  When you generate electricity from the sun, water or wind, you are harnessing free energy and using it for work, regardless of if you are purchasing energy elsewhere.  The main limitations to the mass public & private harnessing of wind & solar energy have been the cost factors and physical limitations that come with these energy sources.   

What if there was a way to harness other natural energy sources that are available to everyone, regardless of location or the time of day?  Gravity is one such endless natural energy source, but free energy devices using gravity as the sole energy source have been elusive.  One inventor uses gravity combined with floatation to generate a small amount of free energy (see: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gxnHJoyrQpM&feature=channel_page .  The electromagnetic (EM) energy from the Earth’s core is another potential source of endless energy for all.  (See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth's_magnetic_field )  It is continuously available as long as Earth’s core is in motion.  Perception from academia on this issue has been that the Earth’s magnetic field is relatively too weak to draw a substantial amount of electrical energy from it, and that an enormous collector would be necessary to harness Earth’s natural magnetic field, being generated from the planet’s core.  Still, inventors such as the famous Nicola Tesla and Thomas Henry Moray have experimented in this field and not only theorized about harnessing such an energy source, but have constructed such a device (see: http://www.free-energy-info.co.uk/Chapter7.pdf ).


Regardless of what form it manifests itself in, it remains a strong possibility (or probability) that an abundant energy source is available to harness at any location on Earth, and available indefinitely day or night.  The possibility exists right now to have the equivalent of the power of Hoover Dam in every back yard, or utility closet on the planet.  The trick is how to tap into the energy source of Zero-Point Energy and convert it into usable electricity.  Dr. Tom Valone speaks in detail about the prospect of harnessing Zero-Point Energy and how it has been done here: http://www.pureenergysystems.com/events/conferences/2004/teslatech_SLC/TomValone/ZPE_Extraction_QuantumVacuum.htm .  A video presentation of Dr. Valone describing ZPE and its harnessing can be seen here: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-6286598798176714592 .  Moray King describes in great detail exactly how ZPE is tapped using a Water Fuel Cell (see: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kGx_o7IuNy4&feature=channel_page) . 

One vital step to the commercialization of free energy products which harness Zero-Point Energy is mass public awareness of the energy source, and the knowledge that this source is available everywhere and anytime, day or night.  Awareness throughout academia and the established engineering field of this energy source is also critical for the technology to move forward commercially.  What can also help drive this forward is to have a commercially available ZPE product to the public that can harness ZPE and convert this into a usable source of energy in large amounts, whether it’s used to move a car, or to provide electricity to power a home.  Once such a product is mass produced and in the mass market, it can no longer be ignored simply because of its commercial success. 

This report has several such emerging and promising energy products as the backbone of each conceptual generation design.  In many cases, a ZPE device is combined with a highly efficient energy product that utilizes conventional means to convert the captured ZPE into electrical energy. There are endless possibilities and combinations of energy products that may achieve an end product that realizes a seemingly net gain in energy. 

But it must be stressed, however, that once the ZPE enters any of these devices, the energy is conserved and follows all the rules of thermodynamics and the laws of conservation of energy.  Zero-Point energy is NOT conserved, and its physics behave differently than conventional forms of energy.  Once it is harnessed and brought into the energy system as a usable form of energy, it is conserved.  To some, this may be a subtle fact, but it is key to help explain the net energy gain of the energy product prototypes depicted in this report. 

Each option can be compared wind and solar energy systems in that they tap into a natural energy source and use this to do work, and provide a way to use free energy.  The natural dynamics and physics of ZPE is much different than wind or solar energy, and this difference should be known in order to explain where the excess energy is coming from.  Just as wind and solar energy generation systems owe their “excess” of energy to the wind and sun, any generator having over-unity properties that taps into ZPE must owe its energy source to the Quantum Vacuum Flux Field (ZPE field). 


When you compare each overunity/free energy option to the hypothetical $30,000 solar & wind energy system described earlier, you may see an apparent difference between the two, aside from the originating energy source.  The difference would be that each option appears to be a closed loop system, whereby the energy that is outputted from the device goes back to power the system, essentially running itself.  Many would call this a perpetual motion device, and therefore be impossible.  This analogy is false.  Firstly, perpetual motion implies something will move forever – which would be impossible.  Over time, bearings wear down, maintenance is required and nothing can move forever.  Secondly, each product may feed back heat or electrical energy back to the ZPE device, which is the primary power source, but this device (such as a Water Fuel Cell) is still drawing energy from nature’s ZPE field, even though the electricity it uses to operate might be coming from the energy the unit is producing.  It may look closed loop, but it is not. 

When considering the energy flowing into the ZPE device from nature, it becomes clear that it is on open loop system, analogous to a water wheel, or large solar panel array.  It’s just a much more different and much more abundant energy source.  It may not be a perpetual motion device, but it may be considered a perpetual energy device when it is in operation.  It’s perhaps more accurate to just call it a free energy device.

From https://www.facebook.com/notes/orenblau-blau/the-future-of-clean-energy-and-overunity-explained-using-quantum-physics-by-matt/2333601172892

For more information about overunity/free energy devices and theories see http://nexusilluminati.blogspot.com/search/label/free%20energy

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  1. New formulation and thermodynamics equation of over-unity:
    OVER-UNITY = (E2 – E1 + Ws + Qs + W created + Q created –TΔS ) / (We + Qe) ;
    1 ≤ OVER-UNITY to ∞ (from one up to infinity)
    Meaning of the small; e = that enters the system, s = exiting the system.
    COP = (E2 – E1 + Ws + Qs + W free + Q free –TΔS ) / (We + Qe)
    0 ≤ COP to ∞ (from zero to infinity)

    Unlike the:


    En estos últimos casos, las eficiencias son menores a la unidad, debido no solo a la perdida de energía en forma de calor por la fricción, sino principalmente por ser procesos que producen trabajo a partir de una expansión sacrificando tanto la presión como la temperatura, es decir, ocurriendo en el proceso una disipación volumétrica de la energía, al pasar de un estado de concentración de energía alta dentro de un volumen pequeño, a un estado de concentración de energía baja dentro de un volumen mayor, o grande con respecto al estado inicial. A pesar que en ambos estados se tiene la misma cantidad de energía, después de haber realizado un trabajo. En otras palabras la energía no se disminuye, o se pierde debido a la transformación en trabajo (“modo de transformación de energía”), sino debido a que esta energía inicial pasa de una alta concentración energética a una baja concentración energética, produciéndose una disipación de la energía, no una transformación energética en trabajo (“otro modo de transformación de energía”), sino un efecto energético (el trabajo como el calor) proporcional al cambio de concentración de la energía. Esto significaría que la energía no se transforma, sino que se disipa al realizar un trabajo o transmitir calor hacia el exterior o bien la energía se concentra al recibir un trabajo o calor desde el exterior. Entonces si se llegara a controlar la disipación energética a medida que produce trabajo, se podrá decir, que la misma energía, dentro de un dispositivo que produzca trabajo, (sin disipación de la energía que lo produce), podría crear (free Energy) otros “tipos, o formas de energías”. Tanto el calor como el trabajo si entran al sistema sirven para concentrar la energía y si ambos salen del sistema sirven para disipar la energía (disminuir la concentración de la energía) en el sistema. Sin negar que la energía interna del sistema sea una función de estado, no siendo así para el calor y el trabajo, ambos (calor y trabajo) son solo efectos, directamente proporcionales al cambio de la concentración energética. Esto último sería una nueva teoría que revolucionaría, un nuevo conocimiento con respecto a la termodinámica actual, para poder obtener eficiencias superiores a la unidad en sistemas adecuadamente diseñados para tal propósito. http://es.calameo.com/books/001042771b5f782c01f3b

  2. In the latter cases, the efficiencies are less than unity, due not only to the energy lost as heat by friction, but mainly because they work processes that produce from a given volumetric expansion, sacrificing both pressure and temperature that is, the process occurring in volumetric dissipation of energy, from a state of high energy concentration within a small volume, to a state of low energy concentration within a larger volume, or large relative to initial state. Eventhough that both states have the same energy, having done work. In other words the energy is not diminished, or lost due to the transformation in work (another kind of energy), but because this initial energy moves from a high concentration to a low concentration energy energy produced energy dissipation, no energy transformation work (another kind of energy), but an energetic (work), proportional to the change in concentration of energy. This would mean that the energy is not converted but is dissipated to perform a work keeping its value constant in the universe, so if you were to control the energy dissipation occurs as you work, it can be said that the same energy, within a device that produces work (without energy dissipation that produces it), could create other types or forms of energy. Without denying that the internal energy in the system is a state function, not being so for the heat and work, both (heat and work) are only effects, directly proportionate to the change in energy concentration. The latter would be a new theory that revoluconaría, new knowledge regarding actual thermodynamics, in order to achieve efficiencies greater than unity, at properly designed systems for such a purpose.

  3. This comment has been removed by the author.




    HOW TO CREATE ENERGY; The creation of energy, exergy creation (inside, and constant) of a thermodynamic equilibrium:

    From the viewpoint of classical thermodynamics, the amount of exergy that can produce a system is indicative of the distance at which the system is located his, end Equilibrium. A system in thermodynamic equilibrium state, is unable to experience a change of state spontaneously, (thermal equilibrium, mechanical equilibrium, and Chemical equilibrium) by nature (natural or artificial). Agree with the above, a closed system thermally insulated with a chemical and mechanical equilibrium (thermodynamic equilibrium permanent), the output is zero exergy. However, a system that is in thermodynamic equilibrium (dynamic mechanical) exergy can (continue) producing while staying within their own thermodynamic equilibrium without external power supply to the system continuous production of energy (energy creation) from a dynamic-mechanic Equilibrium system, denaturalizing (altering nature) the concept of the thermodynamic equilibrium.

    The action-reaction forces are present (in nature and in any device created by man) both in the states of equilibrium and non-equilibrium. In the same way, these action-reaction forces are directly responsible for compliance and non-compliance with the laws of thermodynamics.

    In a system where a process occurs, from a state of equilibrium-1, into another state of equilibrium-2, generating work and heat, with consumption or power dissipation (due to the shape of the operating mechanism, governed by the design system), then everyone is fulfilled the laws of thermodynamics, using the action-reaction forces only to transmit and transform motion energy (fulfilling the law of conservation of energy).

    By contrast, when a system is in constant dynamic equilibrium, and also has a design in which it retains the energy of the energy source, and uses the transmission effect of the pairs of action-reaction forces, to produce the propulsion (of bodies, and mobility subcycles), so that continually occur macroscopic forces opposing applied in areas opposite movable (supports mobile) which is part of the body of mobile subcycles , (each with low forces opposition to the motion and low friction), which interact Through half (liquid, solid or gas) so as to generate useful movement (work, and incidentally heat due to friction), keeping constant the amount of energy within the energy source (thermal insulation, constant volume, constant temperature, constant pressure to thermal equilibrium, Equilibrium Dynamic-Mechanical, chemical equilibrium), having a constant thermodynamic equilibrium within the limits of the energy source. Oppositely, outside the boundaries of the energy source for the system (composed subcycle or subsystems), there is a non-equilibrium mechanic, a thermal non-equilibrium production of useful movement (due to work and heat by motion friction), and electrical energy production methods, if fitted an alternator or generator, which transforms the mechanical energy (useful movement) in Electric Power, thus, to produce more energy (keeping constant the amount of Energy Source Energy that produces it, using the action-reaction forces) clearly not fulfilled the first law of thermodynamics, well as most of the postulates of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, (with the exception of decreased the entropy of the universe) if you enter a device that violates the first law (PMM1) inside a refrigerator or heat pump, producing (one PMM2) over unity.

    New Fourth Law of Thermodynamics; useful movement (work and heat) propelled by iso-energy (isobaric, isothermal, isochoric and adiabatic) or iso-energetically propelled subcycle.


    Ramiro Augusto Salazar La Rotta, D.Sc.

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