"All the world's a stage we pass through." - R. Ayana

Friday, 30 January 2009

Our World May Be a Giant Hologram

Our World May Be a Giant Hologram 

 

 

 

by Marcus Chown


DRIVING through the countryside south of Hanover, it would be easy to miss the GEO600experiment. From the outside, it doesn't look much: in the corner of a fieldstands an assortment of boxy temporary buildings, from which two long trenches emerge, at a right angle to each other, covered with corrugated iron. Underneath the metal sheets, however, lies a detector that stretches for 600 metres.

For the past seven years, this German set-up has been looking for gravitational waves - ripples in space-time thrown off by super-dense astronomical objects such as neutron stars and black holes. GEO600 has not detected any gravitational waves so far, but it might inadvertently have made the most important discovery in physics for half a century.

For many months, the GEO600 team-members had been scratching their heads over inexplicable noise that is plaguing their giant detector. Then, out of the blue, a researcher approached them with an explanation. In fact, he had even predicted the noise before he knew they were detecting it. According to Craig Hogan, a physicist at the Fermilab particle physics lab in Batavia, Illinois, GEO600 has stumbled upon the fundamental limit of space-time - the point where space-time stops behaving like the smooth continuum Einstein described and instead dissolves into "grains", just as a newspaper photograph dissolves into dots as you zoom in. "It looks like GEO600 is being buffeted by the microscopic quantum convulsions of space-time," says Hogan.

If this doesn't blow your socks off, then Hogan, who has just been appointeddirector of Fermilab's Center for Particle Astrophysics, has an even bigger shock in store: "If the GEO600 result is what I suspect it is, then we are all living in a giant cosmic hologram."

The idea that we live in a hologram probably sounds absurd, but it is a natural extension of our best understanding of black holes, and something with a pretty firm theoretical footing. It has also been surprisingly helpful for physicists wrestling with theories of how the universe works at its most fundamental level.

The holograms you find on credit cards and banknotes are etched on two-dimensional plastic films. When light bounces off them, it recreates the appearance of a 3D image. In the 1990s physicists Leonard Susskind and Nobel prizewinner Gerard 't Hooft suggested that the same principle might apply to the universe as a whole. Our everyday experience might itself be a holographic projection of physical processes that take place on a distant, 2D surface.

The "holographic principle" challenges our sensibilities. It seems hard to believe that you woke up, brushed your teeth and are reading this article because of something happening on the boundary of the universe. No one knows what it would mean for us if we really do live in a hologram, yet theorists have good reasons to believe that many aspects of the holographic principle are true.

photo

Susskind and Hooft's remarkable idea was motivated by ground-breaking work on black holes by Jacob Bekenstein of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel and Stephen Hawkingat the University of Cambridge. In the mid-1970s, Hawking showed that black holes are in fact not entirely "black" but instead slowly emit radiation, which causes them to evaporate and eventually disappear. This poses a puzzle, because Hawking radiation does not convey any information about the interior of a black hole. When the black hole has gone, all the information about the star that collapsed to form the black hole has vanished, which contradicts the widely affirmed principle that information cannot be destroyed. This is known as the black hole information paradox.

Bekenstein's work provided an important clue in resolving the paradox. He discovered that a black hole's entropy - which is synonymous with its information content - is proportional to the surface area of its event horizon. This is the theoretical surface that cloaks the black hole and marks the point of no return for infalling matter or light. Theorists have since shown that microscopic quantum ripples at the event horizon can encode the information inside the black hole, so there is no mysterious information loss as the black hole evaporates.

Crucially, this provides a deep physical insight: the 3D information about a precursor star can be completely encoded in the 2D horizon of the subsequent black hole - not unlike the 3D image of an object being encoded in a 2D hologram. Susskind and 't Hooft extended the insight to the universe as a whole on the basis that the cosmos has a horizon too - the boundary from beyond which light has not had time to reach us in the 13.7-billion-year lifespan of the universe. 

What's more, work by several string theorists, most notably Juan Maldacenaat the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, has confirmed that the idea is on the right track. He showed that the physics inside a hypothetical universe with five dimensions and shaped like a Pringle is the same as the physics taking place on the four-dimensional boundary.

According to Hogan, the holographic principle radically changes our picture of space-time. Theoretical physicists have long believed that quantum effects will cause space-time to convulse wildly on the tiniest scales. At this magnification, the fabric of space-time becomes grainy and is ultimately made of tiny units rather like pixels, but a hundred billion billion times smaller than a proton. This distance is known as the Planck length, a mere 10-35 metres.


The Planck length is far beyond the reach of any conceivable experiment, so nobody dared dream that the graininess of space-time might be discernible.

That is, not until Hogan realised that the holographic principle changes everything. If space-time is a grainy hologram, then you can think of the universe as a sphere whose outer surface is papered in Planck length-sized squares, each containing one bit of information. The holographic principle says that the amount of information papering the outside must match the number of bits contained inside the volume of the universe.

Since the volume of the spherical universe is much bigger than its outer surface, how could this be true? Hogan realised that in order to have the same number of bits inside the universe as on the boundary, the world inside must be made up of grains bigger than the Planck length. "Or, to put it another way, a holographic universe is blurry," says Hogan.

This is good news for anyone trying to probe the smallest unit of space-time. "Contrary to all expectations, it brings its microscopic quantum structure within reach of current experiments," says Hogan. So while the Planck length is too small for experiments to detect, the holographic "projection" of that graininess could be much, much larger, at around 10-16 metres.


"If you lived inside a hologram, you could tell by measuring the blurring," he says.

 

When Hogan first realised this, he wondered if any experiment might be able to detect the holographic blurriness of space-time. That's where GEO600 comes in.

Gravitational wave detectors like GEO600 are essentially fantastically sensitive rulers. The idea is that if a gravitational wave passes through GEO600, it will alternately stretch space in one direction and squeeze it in another. To measure this, the GEO600 team fires a single laser through a half-silvered mirror called a beam splitter. This divides the light into two beams, which pass down the instrument's 600-metre perpendicular arms and bounce back again. The returning light beams merge together at the beam splitter and create an interference pattern of light and dark regions where the light waves either cancel out or reinforce each other. Any shift in the position of those regions tells you that the relative lengths of the arms has changed.

"The key thing is that such experiments are sensitive to changes in the length of the rulers that are far smaller than the diameter of a proton," says Hogan.

So would they be able to detect a holographic projection of grainy space-time? Of the five gravitational wave detectors around the world, Hogan realised that the Anglo-German GEO600 experiment ought to be the most sensitive to what he had in mind. He predicted that if the experiment's beam splitter is buffeted by the quantum convulsions of space-time, this will show up in its measurements (Physical Review D, vol 77, p 104031). "This random jitter would cause noise in the laser light signal," says Hogan.

In June he sent his predictionto the GEO600 team. "Incredibly, I discovered that the experiment was picking up unexpected noise," says Hogan. GEO600's principal investigator Karsten Danzmann of the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physicsin Potsdam, Germany, and also the University of Hanover, admits that the excess noise, with frequencies of between 300 and 1500 hertz, had been bothering the team for a long time. He replied to Hogan and sent him a plot of the noise. "It looked exactly the same as my prediction," says Hogan. "It was as if the beam splitter had an extra sideways jitter."

Incredibly, the experiment was picking up unexpected noise - as if quantum convulsions were causing an extra sideways jitter. No one - including Hogan - is yet claiming that GEO600 has found evidence that we live in a holographic universe. It is far too soon to say. "There could still be a mundane source of the noise," Hogan admits.

Gravitational-wave detectors are extremely sensitive, so those who operate them have to work harder than most to rule out noise. They have to take into account passing clouds, distant traffic, seismological rumbles and many, many other sources that could mask a real signal. "The daily business of improving the sensitivity of these experiments always throws up some excess noise," says Danzmann. "We work to identify its cause, get rid of it and tackle the next source of excess noise." At present there are no clear candidate sources for the noise GEO600 is experiencing. "In this respect I would consider the present situation unpleasant, but not really worrying."

For a while, the GEO600 team thought the noise Hogan was interested in was caused by fluctuations in temperature across the beam splitter. However, the team worked out that this could account for only one-third of the noise at most.

Danzmann says several planned upgrades should improve the sensitivity of GEO600 and eliminate some possible experimental sources of excess noise. "If the noise remains where it is now after these measures, then we have to think again," he says.

If GEO600 really has discovered holographic noise from quantum convulsions of space-time, then it presents a double-edged sword for gravitational wave researchers. One on hand, the noise will handicap their attempts to detect gravitational waves. On the other, it could represent an even more fundamental discovery.

Such a situation would not be unprecedented in physics. Giant detectors built to look for a hypothetical form of radioactivity in which protons decay never found such a thing. Instead, they discovered that neutrinos can change from one type into another - arguably more important because it could tell us how the universe came to be filled with matter and not antimatter (New Scientist, 12 April 2008, p 26).

It would be ironic if an instrument built to detect something as vast as astrophysical sources of gravitational waves inadvertently detected the minuscule graininess of space-time. "Speaking as a fundamental physicist, I see discovering holographic noise as far more interesting," says Hogan.

Small price to pay


photo


Despite the fact that if Hogan is right, and holographic noise will spoil GEO600's ability to detect gravitational waves, Danzmann is upbeat. "Even if it limits GEO600's sensitivity in some frequency range, it would be a price we would be happy to pay in return for the first detection of the graininess of space-time." he says. "You bet we would be pleased. It would be one of the most remarkable discoveries in a long time."

However Danzmann is cautious about Hogan's proposal and believes more theoretical work needs to be done. "It's intriguing," he says. "But it's not really a theory yet, more just an idea." Like many others, Danzmann agrees it is too early to make any definitive claims. "Let's wait and see," he says. "We think it's at least a year too early to get excited."

The longer the puzzle remains, however, the stronger the motivation becomes to build a dedicated instrument to probe holographic noise. John Cramer of the University of Washington in Seattle agrees. It was a "lucky accident" that Hogan's predictions could be connected to the GEO600 experiment, he says. "It seems clear that much better experimental investigations could be mounted if they were focused specifically on the measurement and characterisation of holographic noise and related phenomena."

One possibility, according to Hogan, would be to use a device called an atom interferometer. These operate using the same principle as laser-based detectors but use beams made of ultracold atoms rather than laser light. Because atoms can behave as waves with a much smaller wavelength than light, atom interferometers are significantly smaller and therefore cheaper to build than their gravitational-wave-detector counterparts.

So what would it mean it if holographic noise has been found? Cramer likens it to the discoveryof unexpected noise by an antenna at Bell Labs in New Jersey in 1964. That noise turned out to be the cosmic microwave background, the afterglow of the big bang fireball. "Not only did it earn Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson a Nobel prize,but it confirmed the big bang and opened up a whole field of cosmology," says Cramer.

Hogan is more specific. "Forget Quantum of Solace, we would have directly observed the quantum of time," says Hogan. "It's the smallest possible interval of time - the Planck length divided by the speed of light."

More importantly, confirming the holographic principle would be a big help to researchers trying to unite quantum mechanics and Einstein's theory of gravity. Today the most popular approach to quantum gravity is string theory, which researchers hope could describe happenings in the universe at the most fundamental level. But it is not the only show in town. "Holographic space-time is used in certain approaches to quantising gravity that have a strong connection to string theory," says Cramer. "Consequently, some quantum gravity theories might be falsified and others reinforced."

Hogan agrees that if the holographic principle is confirmed, it rules out all approaches to quantum gravity that do not incorporate the holographic principle. Conversely, it would be a boost for those that do - including some derived from string theory and something called matrix theory. "Ultimately, we may have our first indication of how space-time emerges out of quantum theory." As serendipitous discoveries go, it's hard to get more ground-breaking than that.


Marcus Chown is the author of Quantum Theory Cannot Hurt You (Faber, 2008)


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Sunday, 25 January 2009

FREE ENERGY: Political, Social and Economic Implications of the N Machine/Space Power Generator

FREE ENERGY

The Political, Social, and Economic Implications of the N Machine/Space Power Generator

http://www.globalmicroturbine.com/Site/Applications/Entries/2006/12/12_Cavitational_Fluid_Heat_files/76.JPG.jpg
by Bruce De Palma

As a long time worker in the field of Free Energy physics, and the inventor of the N machine which extracts energy from the Free Energy field of Space, sooner or later I would have to face the political nature of progress. It is not simply enough to violate the established laws of physics with a new experiment. (1)


We are facing a situation unique in the history of the world. In the past the inventor had to serve the requirements of a vital and expanding society. The telegraph, the telephone, long distance communication, the railroad and automobile covered the globe and finally satellite communications making a truly global and planetary society. With the coming of the global society the planetary Earth became a floating island in space with only resource wars on the horizon as a foreshadowing of things to come. 

Limitation of resources as opposed to development of uncharted territory poses a new challenge to the inventor. In the case of Free Energy, it is not a case of being able to accomplish something which had not been done before but being able to accomplish the same things which had been done before without consumption of gas, coal or oil or the pollution of natural resources by exhaust fumes or combustion by-products. 

Take the case of the electric car. An automobile which could exceed the presently accepted performance while not consuming or burning oil or gas - which could be switched on before a journey and off after reaching your destination. The power unit for such a machine would extract its energy directly from space without noise or pollution. 

With the growth of society limited by the finite planetary surface area the Space Power Generator offers the only hope for avoidance of resource wars. In fact, planetary renewal can be affected with the availability of unlimited non-consumptive and non-polluting Space Power. It must be recognized that advancement in society always means less manual labor and that finally we must accept the condition of un-employment as the fulfillment of the nature of progress itself. 

A new source of energy in our society, a new prime mover, can make possible a new kind of independence. A kind of independence for the common man where he can take pride that he has fulfilled his role in free society and now he can make his own life in the certainty of a new source of prime energy which can make him independent of the feeling that he must take orders from someone else in order to feel he has a job. 

That total un-employment is the ultimate goal of capitalistic society. When all the natural forces of Nature have been harnessed man is released from the state of slavery. At this point politics becomes a form of state or option from which he can launch his platform to the stars. 

If energy and transportation costs were zero, society would center around quality of life, small communities would form in which all basic life support requirements would be met locally. Money would still be required to purchase manufactured high-tech items and money could be earned through sale of community grown or manufactured goods. 

A political administration would be elected to provide global planetary coordination for projects outside the scale of simple community organization. This does not imply the necessity of a global one-world government; a loose federation of autonomous states and countries would be sufficient. 

In our present 1993 society Mammon has been elevated to the position of a god, i.e. nothing can be accomplished without money. The challenge is to replace promises on paper with real quality of life. 

When Isaac Newton formulated his "Principia Mathematica" in the late 1600's he violated his own admonition "Hypotheses non Fingo", "I make no hypotheses" in his third law of motion: "For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction." This statement implies there is an "equal" and "opposite" reaction to every action. The statements "equal" and "opposite" are in themselves a hypothesis, since every experiment in physics would have to be tested, including experiments not yet to be done, in the future, to substantiate the truth of such a statement. 

Newton's first two laws, the law of inertia, and the law of mass, are laws of experimental observation which define inertia and mass and do not in themselves include a foreshadowing of the results of those experiments, to wit equal and opposite. Einstein, whose theories are based on the definitions of Newton's 1st and 2nd laws and the conservation laws which grow out of the hypothesis of the third law, are in themselves a conjecture resting on the hypothesis of equality of action and reaction. 

Free Energy transduced through the reactionless self-running electric engine will replace all other forms of internal combustion machines. Society will reformulate itself around the new reactionless prime mover. Man and his activities will hitch themselves to the very wheelwork of the Universe, the forces which cause the planets to rotate and move in circular orbits around the Sun.

 
 
REFERENCES
(1) Magnetism as a Distortion of a Pre-Existent Primordial Energy Field and the Possibility of Extraction of Electrical Energy Directly from Space, Bruce de Palma; the proceedings of the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), August 4-9, 1992, Boston, Massachusetts; sponsored by The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE).


 T H E   H O M E   O F PRIMORDIAL ENERGY

 N-1 Homopolar Generator
"If you can imagine it, it's imaginable - if it's imaginable, it must be real."
- Bruce DePalma, 1997



Overview

We designed this page to disseminate knowledge and accurate data relating to the Pre-Existent Primordial Field of the Universe - a sea of 'free energy’, which permeates all.  The N-1 Homopolar Generator (pictured above) - invented by Bruce DePalma - is an example of the type of device which is able to "plug in" to this Free Energy and eliminate the "need" for the continued use of fossil fuels and the consequent destruction of our only home - Earth.  These devices - and many others like it - have been proven to possess "over-unity" characteristics, i.e.: the power output is more than 100% of the input.  It is our hope that in the near future Free Energy will enable mankind to progress from a state of dependence to one of abundance. 
 


Quadra pole N-machine under test condition in 1995 
 More Quadra pole Photos
The Secret of the Force Machine
by Bruce DePalma



In the analysis of Free Energy machines it is shown that spatial distortion created to elicit electrical power extraction or anti-gravitational effects, results in the appearance of physical forces in the apparatus. The physical forces which appear represent the tangible counterpoise of the spatial distortion.

Anti-gravitational Effects

When a real mechanical object, a flywheel, is rotated, forces appear, the centripetal forces of rotation within the material of the flywheel. These forces are the counterpoise to the spatial distortion created by the centripetal acceleration applied to the mass elements of the rotating wheel. Although these forces are not available for explicit measurement, their presence is evidenced when the wheel is rotated at a high enough speed such that the forces exceed the tensile strength of the flywheel material and an explosion results. The interesting phenomenon is that no work is required to maintain these forces at arbitrarily high values.
 
The gravitational field of the Earth is a spatial distortion occasioned by the presence of mass. The weight of an object is measured by a scale under a condition of constraint, i.e. no motion, and represents the degree of spatial distortion at the point of measurement.
 
Objects in free fall are not acted on by Newtonian forces, consequently their rate of "fall" is subordinated to rate of influx of the gravitational flow. A hydro-electric power station extracts energy from the gravitational energy flow.
 
Gravitational energy is a flow not a force which distinguishes it from Newtonian forces arising from the acceleration of masses. Reasoning by analogy with electrical Free Energy machines within which forces are manifested proportionally as a counterpoise to the degree of spatial distortion required to elicit a certain level of output electrical power, we can hypothesize that to paddle upstream in the gravitational flow a mechanical Free Energy machine would also manifest within itself such a force counterpoise.
 
Thus to generalize we can say that in the class of machines known as Free Energy machines the mode of such apparatus, either in the mechanical or electrical form, is such that the principle of operation is expressible as an equivalence between the explicitly manifested mechanical force counterpoise and the power output of the machine whether it be mechanical, electrical, or other.
 
The gravitational flow represents mechanical power, because power can only be extracted from a flow of power. If the mechanical power output of a machine exceeds the gravitational power flow in the region of its operation then a force will be developed in the direction opposite to the gravitational flow and an anti-gravitational effect will be demonstrated.
 
Actually what is connoted as gravitational power flow and mechanical power output derived from Free Energy anti-gravitational apparatus is Time-Energy. This subject is discussed in other of my writings, reference (1).
 
The archetypal gravitational engine or Free Energy machine is a combination of two counter-rotating gyroscopes with axles parallel and rotors co-planar. The original Force Machine was constructed in 1971, figure (1). The total weight of the apparatus was 276 lbs. The "active" mass at the rim of the flywheels was 10 lbs. The assembly was suspended from a spring scale and the gyroscopes driven counter-rotating at 7600 r.p.m. Under these conditions the support cylinder was driven at 4 r.p.s. to precess the gyros. A consistent set of experiments repeatably showed 4 - 6 lbs. of weight loss. Although thousands of pounds of force were developed, expressed as tension and compression in the walls of the support cylinder, none of this could appear as torque in the precessional axis due to the geometry of the machine. 

Precession more rapid than 4 r.p.s. caused fracture of the tool steel gyro support axles. It is easy to see how the machine design could be improved by mounting both gyros on the same axle and supporting the developed precessional forces by one rotor bearing directly on the other. Other mechanical improvements would greatly increase the achievable anti-gravitational effect. Figure (2).
 
The important observation is that in a Free Energy anti-gravitational Force Machine, essentially no input mechanical power to the precessional axis is required in the manifestation of arbitrarily large forces in the walls of the gyro support cylinder. From the point of view of physics we can say there is an equivalence between the force explicitly developed in the walls of the machine and the mechanical, time-energy, power produced. Thus in this machine we have in operation a Force - Energy equivalence paradigm of great power. In contrast, the consumptive physics now in vogue can only offer a Work - Energy paradigm expressed in machines which are said to "convert" raw materials into energy.
 
Electrical Force Machines
The N-machine

http://users.erols.com/iri/homopolar.jpg

In the construction of an electrical machine analogous to the mechanical Force Machine use is made of the phenomenon of the Faraday disc. It is known that in electrical machines consisting of a conducting disc rotated proximate and co-axial to the magnetic pole of an axially suspended magnet, figure (3), no reaction torques are transmitted from the driven or driving disc to the magnet supplying the exciting field. Attachment of the conducting disc to the magnet itself and co-rotation of disc and magnet elicit an electrical potential between the center and outer edge of the conducting disc. Electrical power at a high degree of efficiency exceeding the electro-mechanical equivalent of work may be drawn from this apparatus, (N-machine).
 
When the N-machine was originally disclosed to the public, ref. (2), (3), careful testing revealed output electrical power exceeding equivalent input mechanical power by 5 - 7.7:1. Theoretical considerations derived from experiments with the mechanical Force Machine would lead one to expect that power could be extracted from such a machine almost free, i.e. electrical power could be extracted without any drag being reflected on the source of driving energy. Many other experimenters attempted to "improve" on the original design. In most cases however while overall efficiency was greater than unity it rarely exceeded 2:1. What was forgotten was the withdrawal of electrical energy in itself created a spatial distortion which interfered with the action of the machine by creating drag.
 
The high efficiency of the "Sunburst" prototype was due to partial compensation of field distortion created by current withdrawal. With reference to figure (4), the magnetic field created in the rotating current collecting disc was partially cancelled by current flow in the opposite direction in a fixed conducting plate, situated as close to the rotating disc as the thickness of the brush assembly would allow. Indicated schematically in the drawing. An improved machine would position a fixed compensation plate as close to the rotating disc as physically possible. Thus current withdrawal would cause the minimum distortion of the exciting magnetic field. In this case almost totally free power would be obtained.
 
The double machine of figure (5) shows an almost ideal configuration where compensation for the spatial distortion of current withdrawal as well as doubling of voltage output is accomplished by contra-rotating magnetized rotors supported on a single shaft. There is a striking similarity between this construction of an N machine space power generator and the suggested twin counter-rotating gyroscopes mounted on a single shaft as an anti-gravitational mechanical space power generator. It is suggested that a mechanical space power generator is converted into an electrical space power generator simply by magnetization of the gyroscopic rotators.
 
In terms of the Force - Energy paradigm the constrained repulsive force generated between the contra-rotating magnets upon the withdrawal of current represents a measure of the electrical power output of the machine. In the anti-gravitational space power machine the torques created in the precession of the counter-rotating gyroscopes, absorbed one upon the other are representative of the anti-gravitational effect.
 
Force - Energy

On the basis of the geometry of both the electrical and mechanical force machines there should be no drag or resistance to precession of the counter-rotating gyroscopes or contra-rotation of the magnetic rotors. Force - Energy equivalence relates to the relationship of internally generated constrained forces and space power output. What we would call efficiency would relate to the work input to these machines, i.e. torque x angular velocity compared with the space power output.
 
Space power is developed out of distortion of the normally isotropic space, the amount of distortion being represented by the reflected internally constrained forces explicitly developed in these machines. As yet there is no measure of space power expressed mechanically as an anti-gravitational effect. Electrically developed space power can be measured in watts. Consequently the efficiency of an electrical space power generator can be expressed as electrical watts output divided by the electrical equivalent of mechanical power required to rotate the magnets.
 
On the basis of present understandings of electrical and mechanical forces, the geometries of both the mechanical and electrical space power machines allow of none of the internally constrained forces developed to appear in the drive axis. Consequently space power should be developed as totally free mechanical or electrical energy.
 
Measurements on practical machines however do show drag to be present. Because one torque is neutralized by an equal and opposite mechanical torque or a force of electrical repulsion is constrained by an equal and opposite mechanical force does not mean that the space in which the neutralization occurs is returned to its original state of isotropicity. I have given a great deal of consideration to this situation.
 
Defect of Forces

In the conservative physics of the work-energy paradigm the thermodynamic law of Equi-partition of energy gives some insight of the energy coupling of orthogonal modes of mechanically interpreted systems. In the physics of energies elicited through spatial distortion of the cosmic primordial field a useful idea is the concept of Defect of Forces which can help us understand the properties of situations whose neutrality is achieved by the balancing of equal and opposing similarly derived forces.
 
The idea is that when a force is manifested as a counterpoise to an experimentally created spatial distortion, i.e. the forces existing in the body of a rotating flywheel, mutually constrained precessional torques or the balancing of electromagnetic distortions by the superposition of equal and opposite vector fields; the manifested force is not perfect.
 
A perfect force by definition possesses only magnitude and direction. A real force manifested as a counterpoise to a condition of spatial distortion has a magnitude, a direction, and something else. The something else would be a property of imperfection common to the universal manifestation of what we know as Reality. The philosophical treatment of the innate imperfection of Reality is beyond the scope of this paper. Suffice it to say, in a physical sense, the defect of forces is a real entity and is the property held in common by all manifested forces, and represents a possible mode of coupling between them. For example an explanation for the phenomena of inertia can be developed out of the coupling of atomic and nuclear forces to the balance of the mass in the Universe through the mechanism of defect of forces.
 
The defect of forces exists, yet is unquantifiable except in terms of itself and has no known properties in terms of things that exist. Its existence is non-existence yet it is held in common with all things that exist. I posit that defect is connected and is responsible for the phenomenon of inertia.
 
In terms of this paper I posit the drag which appears in the drive axis of orthogonal machines is a coupling of the force counterpoise of the created spatial distortion into the drive axis through the mechanism of connectivity of defect.
 
Summary

Force - Energy equivalence is a simple expression that in what I call orthogonal machines a force is manifested proportional to the degree of created spatial distortion. The primordial cosmic field is pure energy, consequently distorting it to obtain a polarization from which power is drawn can make available an arbitrarily large quantity of energy. The energy available is limited more by the mechanism of extraction than the cosmic field.
 
The idea of efficiency applies to the particular configuration of mechanically realizable extraction apparatus. Force - Energy is a way of characterization of the degree of spatial distortion achievable with mechanical apparatus. Defect of forces is a concept to explain why free energy machines are not infinitely efficient. It is also proposed as a mechanism to explain the phenomena of inertia.
 
The machines we construct are almost infinitely puny in comparison to the energy released from the cosmic field observed in the super-nova. The ideas of spatial distortion, Force - Energy equivalence, and defect of forces may open our eyes somewhat to the latent and omnipresent power and majesty of the universe.
 
Addendum

 
It is constructive to consider the interpretation of familiar phenomena from the viewpoint of Free Energy. Distortion of the cosmic energy field by the presence of mass evokes the gravitational flow of time energy. The measure of the created spatial distortion is the force counterpoise known as weight.
 
Distortion of the primordial field by a rotating flywheel or gyroscope evokes the od field of inertial anisotropy. In this case the force counterpoise is not explicitly available but nonetheless exists centripetally expressed within the body of the rotating object.
 
In the interpretation of stellar phenomena the gravitational flow into matter could result in the liberation of heat. Denser matter would increase in temperature. The liberation of energy in stars could result simply because of their mass. As stars became more dense because of gravitational accretion of mass more energy would be liberated. Under gravitational pressure matter itself might have various stages of collapse.
 
The first stage of collapse could precipitate from the cosmic field energy sufficient to cause a Nova. A second state of collapse could precipitate a Super-Nova. A normal stable star would operate in a density range where matter would retain its identity in terms of the series of known elemental configurations. The collapsed matter stages of the nova or super-nova can only be hypothesized and probably would not be available for study under terrestrial conditions.
 
The important observation is that the explosion of a star is analogous to the explosion of a flywheel when rotated at sufficient speed such that its internal cohesion is neutralized by a superabundance of time energy precipitated from the cosmic field. In this case the invocation is rotation. For stars the invocation is mass density and the perceived effect is the gravitational flow. What the rotating flywheel and the star have in common is that an explosion can occur when the internal energy exceeds the forces of material cohesion. A long and useful life results when the density of energy invoked from the cosmic field is less than that required for the disruption of the elemental materials from which they are constructed.
 
References:
 
1) DePalma, "On the Nature of Electrical Induction", 28 July 1993, Nova Astronautica, vol. 14, number 59, 1994; Magnets, vol. 7, number 8, August 1993; New Energy News, vol. 1, number 6, October 1993.
2) DePalma, N-machine D.C. Generator, 24 March 1978, drawing available from B. E. DePalma, Private Bag 11, Papakura, South Auckland, New Zealand.
3) Kincheloe, Homopolar "Free Energy" Generator Test, presented at 1986 meeting of the Society for Scientific Exploration, San Francisco, CA, U.S.A., 21 June 1986, revised 1 February 1987. Contains references to earlier DePalma papers re N-machine.
 
Diagrams 1 - 5:


 






From - http://depalma.pair.com/index.html

extra images - http://www.stardrivedevice.com/N-machine.JPG
http://www.globalmicroturbine.com/Site/Applications/Entries/2006/12/12_Cavitational_Fluid_Heat_files/76.JPG.jpg
http://users.erols.com/iri/homopolar.jpg






 

~The Absurdity of Knowledge ~
A collection of papers by Bruce DePalma

And this is Bruce DePalma 
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It is said: "The whole Universe and created world is a thought in the mind of God."
- The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna
If that be the case, wouldn't He want it to be the finest show in town?





From - http://depalma.pair.com/index.html
extra images - http://www.stardrivedevice.com/N-machine.JPG
http://www.globalmicroturbine.com/Site/Applications/Entries/2006/12/12_Cavitational_Fluid_Heat_files/76.JPG.jpg

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Saturday, 24 January 2009

NASA’s Dim View of Stars: Electric Universe

NASA’s Dim View of Stars
Electric Universe

"..astronomers can tell the temperature of the central regions of the Sun and of many other stars within a few percentage points and be quite sure about the figures they quote."  - A Star Called the Sun, George Gamow.


 IMAGE

The Cone Nebula is a column of dark dust, six light-years long, near some newly formed hot blue stars. The edge of the column, especially the tip, is bright with red light from ionized hydrogen. This nebula and the cluster that illuminates it are about 2600 light-years away in Monoceros. Credit: Michael Gariepy/Adam Block/NOAO/AURA/NSF. 
 
The cone nebula shows a star at the top of a conical-shaped dusty plasma, festooned with lights. The image strikes an instinctive chord—the mythical celestial world mountain around which the stars revolve; the cosmic (Christmas) tree with lights; fireworks displays against a night sky. Why? Because it reflects back to us our own prehistory when a strange drama was taking place in the sky. 

The Earth was enveloped in a towering polar auroral plasma, flashing with light and with bright celestial bodies at its distant focus. How do we know? Prehistoric mankind around the globe chiselled representations of what they saw into solid rock. The effort required was prodigious, the motivation extraordinary. Modern astronomy seems unable to address the issue, offering instead a comfortable myth of cosmic stability.

Twentieth century technologies have enabled astronomers to see the stars and planets ever more clearly, but their perceptions are clouded by centuries-old beliefs about celestial harmony; that the heat and light of stars is due to some kind of internal fire; that we understand gravity sufficiently to declare that it obeys a universal law and alone governs cosmic evolution. These perceptions have become dogma and dogma hinders progress. So it is not surprising that a growing number of critics see gravitational cosmology of the “Big Bang” as sterile and irrelevant to any real understanding of our place and history in the universe. The fact that it has nothing to say about life itself—the deepest mystery of the universe—is just one of countless signs that the present field of view is too limited.


For the moment I want to feature two reports in December that show astronomers do not understand stars. The view of stars as ‘fires in the sky’ was understandable when chemical fires were the only source of light that we knew & the only question we asked of stars was ‘how do they shine? But that view failed when we realized that stars had to burn steadily for aeons. The discovery of nuclear energy offered an answer to this new question without having to re-evaluate the accumulation of other assumptions about stars.


The thermonuclear assumption was never proved, and observations that contradicted it were never crucial enough to compel astronomers to doubt it. It came full circle and led to a futile decades-long effort to mimic the conjectured process to provide power on the Earth. All the while, a clue to a better answer stared the experimenters and theoreticians in the face: they were using electricity to trigger thermonuclear reactions; maybe the Sun was doing that, too.


We use electricity as a convenient means of lighting and heating that doesn’t require the power to be generated on site. We’ve discovered that thin transmission lines can carry great amounts of power over long distances from generator to light bulb. Nature is parsimonious in achieving its ends; why wouldn’t stars get power from natural transmission lines? The satisfying answer is that they do. Radio astronomers can trace the telltale magnetic fields in deep space. The magnetic fields mark filamentary cosmic ‘transmission lines’ carrying electrical power between galaxies and stars.
 

 
IMAGE
 Planetary nebula M2-9. The complex Z-pinch hourglass shape of the external circuitry of a star becomes visible in a planetary nebula where the galactic power is high enough or the plasma is dusty. Gravitational models of stars fail to explain the fine detail of planetary nebulae.

NASA’s Dim View of Stars
The latest report from NASA is a fitting end to The Year of The Electric Universe. It demonstrates that the electric model of stars envisaged the latest observations while NASA researchers again mask their assumptions by stating them as facts. Ironically, the report refers to some stars as “low-energy fluorescent light bulbs.”

As usual, all the science reporting agencies repeat NASA’s words without critical comment. Mainstream media rarely do investigative science journalism. The NASA report follows, along with my comments.

 

 Astronomers Find the Two Dimmest Stellar Bulbs


IMAGE
 This artist's concept shows the dimmest star-like bodies currently known -- twin brown dwarfs referred to as 2M 0939. The twins, which are about the same size, are drawn as if they were viewed close to one of the bodies. Picture credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech.
 
It's a tie! The new record-holder for dimmest known star-like object in the universe goes to twin "failed" stars, or brown dwarfs, each of which shines feebly with only one millionth the light of our sun.


Comment: As we shall see, the notion of “twin failed stars” is a theoretical assumption and not a fact!


In an Electric Universe there is no such thing as a “failed” star. They have no thermonuclear “engine” to fail. All bodies in the galaxy receive external electrical energy from the galactic circuit. Radio astronomers (for the most part unwittingly) trace the circuit by mapping the magnetic fields of galaxies and stars, which fields are generated by the electric current flowing in the circuit. The circuits are unrecognized due to the mistaken conviction that magnetic fields can be ‘frozen in’ to plasma. The ‘father’ of plasma physics, Hannes Alfvén, appealed against this mistaken notion in his Nobel Prize acceptance speech in 1970. But to give up this false belief would require discarding decades of theoretical work and reputations built upon it.


The report continues:

Previously, astronomers thought the pair of dim bulbs was just one typical, faint brown dwarf with no record-smashing titles. But when NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope observed the brown dwarf with its heat-seeking infrared vision, it was able to accurately measure the object's extreme faintness and low temperature for the first time. What's more, the Spitzer data revealed the brown dwarf is, in fact, twins.


"Both of these objects are the first to break the barrier of one millionth the total light-emitting power of the sun," said Adam Burgasser of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. Burgasser is lead author of a new paper about the discovery appearing in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.


Brown dwarfs are the misfits of the cosmos. They are compact balls of gas floating freely in space, but they are too cool and lightweight to be stars, and too warm and massive to be planets. The name "brown dwarf" comes from the fact that these small, star-like bodies change color over time as they cool, and thus have no definitive color. In reality, most brown dwarfs would appear reddish if they could be seen with the naked eye. Their feeble light output also means they are hard to find. The first brown dwarf wasn't discovered until 1995. While hundreds are known today, astronomers say there are many more in space still waiting to be discovered.


Comment: All stars are an electrical phenomenon. There are no “misfits” in an Electric Universe. All of the assumptions being heaped upon the meagre photons received from deep space merely serve, as usual, to force fit the data to the standard model of stars. The very name, brown “dwarf,” assumes that these stars are “compact balls of gas floating freely in space.”


In stark comparison, the electric model describes them as “huge” because the light from a star is a plasma discharge phenomenon with only a loose relationship to the physical size of the star and a strong dependence on the electrical environment. Brown dwarfs do not simply cool down over time and wink out. They are externally powered electric lights.


In December 1999 I wrote, “The apparent size and color of an electric star is an electrical phenomenon. If Jupiter's magnetosphere were lit up it would appear the size of the full Moon… The light of a red star is due to the distended anode glow of an electrically low-stressed star… Red Giants are a more visible and scaled-up example of what an L-type Brown Dwarf star might look like close-up.”


The report continues:
 
Astronomers recently used Spitzer's ultrasensitive infrared vision to learn more about the object, which was still thought to be a solo brown dwarf. These data revealed a warm atmospheric temperature of 565 to 635 Kelvin (560 to 680 degrees Fahrenheit). While this is hundreds of degrees hotter than Jupiter, it's still downright cold as far as stars go. In fact, it is one of the coldest star-like bodies measured so far.


To calculate the object's brightness, the researchers had to first determine its distance from Earth. After three years of precise measurements with the Anglo-Australian Observatory in Australia, they concluded that the star is the fifth-closest known brown dwarf to us, 17 light-years away toward the constellation Antlia. This distance, together with Spitzer's measurements, told the astronomers the object was both cool and extremely dim.

But something was puzzling. The brightness of the object was twice what would be expected for a brown dwarf with its particular temperature. The solution? The object must have twice the surface area. In other words, it's twins, with each body shining only half as bright, and each with a mass of 30 to 40 times that of Jupiter. Both bodies are one million times fainter than the sun in total light, and at least one billion times fainter in visible light alone.


"These brown dwarfs are the lowest power stellar light bulbs in the sky that we know of," said Burgasser. "And like low-energy fluorescent light bulbs, they emit most of their light in a narrow range of wavelengths, in this case in the infrared."


Comment: Burgasser’s description of brown dwarfs as “low-energy fluorescent light bulbs” is the closest he comes to the truth. Like fluorescent lights, brown dwarfs require electricity! And the solution to the problem is simple—a single red dwarf with a distended red anode-glow can provide the extra brightness without postulating an unlikely twin.


The report continues:
 
According to the authors, there are even dimmer brown dwarfs scattered throughout the universe, most too faint to see with current sky surveys. NASA's upcoming Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer mission will scan the entire sky at infrared wavelengths, and is expected to uncover hundreds of these inconspicuous characters.


"The holy grail in the study of brown dwarfs is to find out how low you can go in terms of temperature, mass and brightness," said Davy Kirkpatrick, a co-author of the paper at NASA's Infrared Processing and Analysis Center at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena. "This will tell us more about how brown dwarfs form and evolve."

Comment: In an Electric Universe, stars do not evolve. The notion of stellar evolution and the age of stars is an invention of the standard thermonuclear model of stars. And for so long as scientists cling to an unworkable theory of stellar formation by gravitational accretion, new findings will serve only to add to the confusion.


I predict that further discoveries by the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer in this category will require the same ad hoc assumption that the radiant surface area, based on standard theory, must be accommodated by multiple star systems. The odds against finding so many multiple systems will become astronomical.

 


 Success for the Electrical Model of White Dwarf Stars

IMAGE
The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is a plot of observations which must be explained by the chosen model of stars. The electrical model of stars reverses the direction of the x-axis to show the direct relationship between an increase in current density at the surface of a star and the higher temperature of that star, reflected by its change in color from red hot to white hot to blue hot.


 
 
The main sequence is the backbone of the observations but there are sharp discontinuities between the main sequence, the giant stars and white dwarfs. In the standard thermonuclear model of stars, the explanations for these discontinuities are beset by many observational discrepancies and ad hoc patches.

In the electric star model such discontinuities are a natural feature of a plasma discharge. Main sequence stars operate like arc lights in a cinema projector. The plasma discharge at their photospheres is in arc mode. The main sequence is a direct result of increasing the current density at the surface of a star.


The white dwarfs operate more like fluorescent lights, where a fainter coronal glow-mode discharge provides the light. If you can imagine the Sun’s bright photosphere being replaced by faint white coronal light, you have the picture. White ‘dwarfs’ are not dwarfs at all. They are faint, not because they are small but because they produce their light in a different mode of plasma discharge from stars like the Sun. The current density scale for white dwarfs is different to that of the main sequence and this is why they are scattered along a lower-luminosity sequence.


In the case of giant stars, the star’s ‘surface’ is bloated like the glow of a neon light as the star seeks to satisfy its current requirements. The red light comes from a low current density at the large diameters of the (virtual) anode of these stars.


The stellar thermonuclear evolutionary story is that a star of intermediate mass (1-8 solar masses) terminates its life as an Earth-sized white dwarf after the exhaustion of its nuclear fuel. During the transition from a nuclear-burning star to the white dwarf stage, the star collapses to about one fiftieth of the solar radius and becomes very hot. Many such objects with surface temperatures around 100,000 Kelvin (K) are known. Theories of stellar evolution predict that these stars can be much hotter. However, the probability of catching them in such an extremely hot state is low, because this phase is short-lived.


An article was published on December 12 this year in Astronomy & Astrophysics Letters which claims to have discovered one of these white dwarfs, “one of the hottest stars ever known with a temperature of 200,000 K at its surface.” The temperature is deduced from the emission from nine-fold ionized calcium atoms thought to be in the star’s photosphere. It is the highest ionization level of a chemical element ever discovered in a photospheric stellar spectrum.


The stellar atmosphere modelling of a white dwarf based on thermodynamic equilibrium will give erroneous conclusions because charged particles in an electric field will be dethermalized (their random motion reduced while their kinetic energy increases). So it easy for a white dwarf to multiply ionize calcium atoms because the electrical energy required is equivalent to a mere 211 electron volts and not random thermal energy equal to a temperature of 200,000 to 300,000 K. Using thermal (mechanical) energy is the most difficult and unlikely way of explaining the data.


The white dwarf also challenges the standard stellar evolution concepts because it has a chemical surface composition rich in calcium and helium that is not predicted by stellar evolution models. A paper in the Astrophysical Journal of February 2005 shows the surprise and confusion created by this star. As usual, mechanical energy in the form of a supposed “shocked wind” is proposed as the origin of weak X-ray emission at 1 keV. And despite the almost infinite number of “knobs” available to twiddle on the standard model, a match with observations has not been reached.





The obstacle to an understanding of white dwarfs comes from using heat (mechanical energy) from within a star to explain highly energetic phenomena outside the star. It is precisely the difficulty encountered with the Sun and its phenomenally hot corona. The conceptual hurdle is exemplified by the paradigm set out in the introduction to the above paper: “The hot 106-107 K coronae on the Sun and other late-type stars are  


believed to be sustained by mechanical energy in their outer convection zones, which is dissipated at the surface through the medium of magnetic fields generated and amplified by differential rotation and convection in the interior.” [Emphasis added].

In other words, our present understanding of the Sun and therefore most other stars is based on this simple belief that to this day has not been verified. In this circumstance it would be scientifically responsible to question that belief when new data fails to satisfy predictions. As Eddington, the theoretician who gave us the standard model of stars, wrote of white dwarfs when first discovered, “Strange objects, which persist in showing a type of spectrum entirely out of keeping with their luminosity, may ultimately teach us more than a host which radiates according to rule.” But beliefs are very difficult to shift.


In July this year I wrote, “A white dwarf is a star that is under low electrical stress so that bright ‘anode tufting’ is not required. The star appears extremely hot, white and under-luminous because it is equivalent to having the faint white corona discharge of the Sun reach down to the star’s atmosphere. As usual, a thin plasma sheath will be formed between the plasma of the star and the plasma of space. The electric field across the plasma sheath is capable of accelerating electrons to generate X-rays when they hit atoms in the atmosphere. And the power dissipated is capable of raising the temperature of a thin plasma layer to tens of thousands of degrees.”


Of course, this model will need to be reviewed in the light of new data. But at least it is a new, quite different model that easily meets the basic observational fact of high-energy phenomena outside a star. The strong magnetic fields of some white dwarfs are diagnostic of external electric currents. The spectral line broadening indicates the presence of a strong electric field in the light-emitting region. The electrical energy focussed on the white dwarf is dissipated in an extensive, cool corona instead of a hot, arc-tufted photosphere.


So it is significant that the spectrum of the white dwarf in the cited paper was interpreted as “evidence that the X-rays originated not from deeper atmospheric layers but from a coronal plasma encircling the star.” The white dwarf “became the first white dwarf thought to have a corona, albeit a cool one.” The weak X-ray emission is attributed, in ad hoc fashion, to “a shocked wind.” It’s like a dentist using a jet engine to X-ray your teeth.


The presence of anomalies in the star’s spectrum, both in the elements present and their state of ionization, is more accurately explained by the electrical model of stars, which have a cool core of heavy elements. The authors note, “a coronal model requires a total luminosity more than two orders of magnitude larger than that of the star itself.” An electric white ‘dwarf’ emits light from both the corona and the thin, brighter plasma sheath that forms its photosphere.


An electric white dwarf is a far simpler model than the “collapsed degenerate stellar corpse” model. The star is not “dying.” It has not evolved from another type of star. It is not an impossible object—a Sun squeezed to twice the diameter of the Earth. Stars cannot suffer gravitational collapse to a theoretical form of ‘degenerate matter’ that has never been observed—where atoms are squeezed together so strongly that only electrons in adjacent atoms prevent further collapse because they cannot share orbits. Just how far-fetched this notion is can be gauged if we consider that the electric repulsive force exceeds the gravitational force by 39 orders of magnitude!!


Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1983 for his theoretical work on electron degenerate white dwarfs, which predicted the existence of a relationship between mass and radius for a degenerate white dwarf. This theoretical mass-radius relation is a generally accepted underlying assumption in nearly all studies of white dwarf properties. In turn, these studies, including the white dwarf mass distribution and luminosity function, are foundations for such varied fields as stellar evolution and galactic formation. The notion of stellar collapse led on to more extreme theoretical fictions—neutron stars and black holes. The damage wrought by such an assumption for our understanding of stars and the cosmos cannot be overstated! A recent paper in The Astrophysical Journal warned, “One might assume that a theory as basic as stellar degeneracy rests on solid observational grounds, yet this is not the case. Comparison between observation and theory has shown disturbing discrepancies.” The paper cited here adds to the discrepancies. 

 
IMAGE
In summary: nearby red and white stars that appear faint are not different to other stars. Red dwarfs are physically much smaller than the Sun but their visible glow discharge is large and of low current density and energy (red). 
 

White ‘dwarfs,’ on the other hand, are physically larger than red dwarfs but generally smaller than the Sun. Lacking bright anode tufting they have an extended coronal type discharge and photosphere that emits faint whitish light, ultraviolet light and mild X-rays. The spectral lines are broadened, sometimes to the point of disappearance, due to the coronal electric field. This gives the misleading impression that hydrogen (whose spectral lines are smeared the most) is missing in many of these stars and that therefore they are remnants of larger stars that have lost or burned their hydrogen fuel.


Significantly, the larger the white dwarf, the lower the current density and the lower the apparent temperature. This trend has been noted with some puzzlement by researchers. White dwarfs the size of the Sun and a little larger are stars under lower electrical stress than normal. This may occur, for example, in binary star systems like that of Sirius, where one star usurps most of the available electrical energy.


There are no collapsed stars of extraordinary high density. The story of stellar evolution is fiction. The numbers of small red and white stars exceed the number of bright stars. They are formed in the same Z-pinch mechanism in dusty plasma as are all other stars. Or they may be born later by parturition (nova) of an unstable larger star. The economy and success of the Electric Universe model is readily apparent.

The Electric Universe paradigm continues its successful run of discovery and prediction in 2008

In January I declared 2008 The Year of the Electric Universe. And so it has proved to be. Confirming and supportive evidence arrives almost daily. Along with my associated THUNDERBOLTS.INFO website we attract tens of thousands of visitors each month. This month set a new record. The scientific literacy of visitors is exceptionally high, and a consistent pattern has emerged, verified by hundreds of comments. When newcomers compare the direct evidence for the Electric Universe to conventional interpretations of the same data, offered here and in Thunderbolts Picture of the Day,” the conclusion becomes clear. We do indeed live in an Electric Universe.


The Thunderbolts Project is attracting volunteers and people wanting to undertake serious study to further their understanding of plasma and the Electric Universe. New books, educational e-books and videos are being produced and a Japanese version of Thunderbolts of the Gods is due to go on sale in that country early in the new year.


The future is bright in an Electric Universe! 


 

 - Wal Thornhill   

From http://www.holoscience.com/news.php?article=b8zgwr0h  




For further enlightening info enter a word or phrase into the search box @  New Illuminati @  http://nexusilluminati.blogspot.com or click on any tag at the bottom of the page for more direct references

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This material is published under Creative Commons Copyright (unless an individual item is declared otherwise by copyright holder) – reproduction for non-profit use is permitted & encouraged, if you give attribution to the work & author - and please include a (preferably active) link to the original along with this notice. Feel free to make non-commercial hard (printed) or software copies or mirror sites - you never know how long something will stay glued to the web – but remember attribution! If you like what you see, please send a tiny donation or leave a comment – and thanks for reading this far…

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