"All the World's a Stage We Pass Through" R. Ayana

Saturday, 18 January 2014

Transmuting Radioactive Elements: Safe Disposal of Radioactive Waste

Transmuting Radioactive Elements
Safe Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Clean Energy Review


The Case for Advanced Transmutation Processes

Advanced Transmutation processes can handle nuclear waste on site without disturbing or affecting the ambient conditions, and can be managed, if so required, by robotics. They are inherently tunable to treat specific radioactive isotopes, as required, or mixtures thereof. The estimated capital costs are extremely low -- probably less than 1% of the AECL concept and the engineering research and development to achieve "manufacturer prototype" stages should last less than one year, based on the currently acquired experience.

The duration of the process is extremely brief -- ranging from minutes to a day -- decreasing forever both present risks and hazards as well as those for future generations well into the millions of years.

Should Canada decide to embark on the Advanced Transmutation modes, it would have acquired an edge on a very exportable clean technology.

Deviations of Decay Rates

Since the discovery of natural radioactivity, it was generally believed that these processes obeyed orderly, simple decay rate formulae and that nuclear processes operated completely independent of extra nuclear phenomena such as the chemical sate of the system or physical parameters such as pressure or temperature. A solid body of scientific literature describes a small percentage variation of the order of 0.1 to 5% in the decay constant under a variety of chemical and physical conditions.

The standard definition of half-life or half-decay time is the time taken by a given amount of a particular radioactive substance to undergo disintegration or decay of half of its atoms.  Measured half-lives vary from less than a millionth of a second to billions of years in the case of Uranium. There are four modes of decay, three are named after the first three letters of the Greek alphabet, i.e., alpha, beta and gamma and the fourth is the recently discovered proton decay.

By way of review, for the Bohr-Rutherford model of the atom, the nucleus is composed of the heavy particles or hadron or the proton and the neutron and surrounded by a cloud of electrons (or light particles or leptons) the number of which depends on the atomic number (for neutral atoms) and also the valence state (for ionized atoms). Alpha particles are Helium nuclei, 4He.2 consisting of two protons and 2 neutrons and beta particles are electrons (negative charge) and positrons (positive charge) and gamma rays, the short wave length of the electromagnetic radiation band and the proton is a hadron. Alpha particles and protons are strongly interacting particles as are all hadrons.

The current model of beta decay is that an inter nucleon neutron spontaneously decays into a proton and an electron (or beta particle and an anti-electron neutrino, no ® p. + e. + nc.  A neutrino is a zero rest mass spin 1/2 particle which conserves momentum in the decay process. There are many pure beta emitters throughout the periodic table, Carbon 14C and deuterium are two examples. Beta particles penetrate substance less deeply than gamma radiation but are hundreds of times more penetrating than alpha particles.  Beta particles can be stopped by an inch of wood or by a thin sheet of aluminum foil, for example. The energy of most emitted alpha particles are stopped by a piece of paper and the most energetic gamma rays require a thick piece of lead or concrete.

Electromagnetic radiation emission from atomic processes can be in the x-ray energy range and nuclear in the x-ray and gamma ray energy range.

It is believed that all radioactive atomic nuclei decay spontaneously without prior cause at a specific and steady decay rate which differs for each radioactive isotope. Some precise measurements of half lives have been made which show deviations of the standard type decay curves which appear to depend of extra nuclear variable conditions -- non nuclear in origin and structure.

Variations in the decay constant N = Noe-lp with T1/2 = 0.693/l is based on crude instruments from some 70 years ago.  Later, with more sophisticated electronics, the value of l of the decay of Beryllium was, 7Be was first shown in 1949 to deviate by 0.1% between atomic BE and molecular BeO. In 1965, the l of Niobium, 90Nb is altered by 4% between the metal and the fluoride form, as discussed by G. Emery. H. C. Dudley reported on studies that have varied decay characteristics of twelve other radionuclides with changes in the energy states of the orbital electrons, by pressure, temperature, electric and magnetic fields, stress in monomolecular layers and other physical atomic conditions.

The alteration of decay rates by extra nuclear processes may not be truly random and requires a new theoretical model.  As these effects occur, the term nuclear may need to be expanded to reactions and processes involving the entire atom and even multi-atom crystal matrix forms rather than just mass-energy changes in only the nucleus.

Not too well known is a quite prodigious body of work on the persistent effects of chemical states and physical environment on the deviation in the lifetimes of nuclear decay rates from the accepted decay law. Theoretical as well as experimental research has been conducted. In 1947, R. Daudel and E. Segré predicted that under certain conditions a dependence of the decay constant on the chemical and physical environment of the nucleus should be observable and subsequent to these predictions such a dependence was experimentally observed (with R. F. Leinzinger and C. Wiegand) in the K capture decay of 7Be and the internal conversion decay of the 99m isomeric state of Technetium.

During the decay process, the chemical environment of the nucleus is changed, thus altering the decay constant. R. Daudel pointed out that the isomeric decay constant of the 2-keV isomeric state transition in the Technetium isotope 99mTc arose from a change in the electron density near the nucleus. J. C. Slater suggested that the faster decay rate observed for the RTcO4 compound form is due to a greater squeezing of the Tc atoms with the metal Tc-Tc bond distance of 2.7 Å. Note that the symbol Å refers to the distance measure of one Angstrom which equals 10-8 cm.

A good example of the effect of a chemical change in the nuclear environment during radioactive decay is for the intensity change of the 122-keV E2 gamma ray observed for the 90mNb isomeric state of Niobium.  This effect on the decay rate for the 21 second transition was an order of magnitude greater and in the opposite direction than observed in 99mTc and was achieved at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory by J. O. Rasmussen and his colleagues, J. A. Cooper and J M. Hollander in 1965.

In 1975, Elizabeth A. Rauscher lengthened beta emissions for 20Si simply by surrounding it with specifically designed matrix material, thereby lengthening the decay rate by about 6% with only 15 minute exposure, demonstrating the impact of environmental conditions on radionuclides.

Natural, low-energy transmutation phenomena have been observed for centuries. In 1799, the French chemist, Nicolas Louis Vauquelin noted that hens could excrete 500% more lime that they take in as food, suggesting a creation -- transmutation of Calcium Carbonate. Many similar phenomena are noted in the scientific literature to occur in vegetation processes of plants as well, whereby new elements and minerals would inexplicably emerge. Nobel Nominee Prof. Louis Kervran replicated these numerous reports and advanced very far the understanding of natural, non-radioactive transmutations, acquiring in this pursuit a term for such transmutations, Kervran reaction, while engendering solid physics support from the Institut de Physique Théorique Henri Poincaré physicist, Olivier Costa de Beauregard who has stated since 1974 that the theory of weak neutral currents accounts for the transmutations observed, with all due respect for the physical laws of Conservation.  The theory of neutral currents gave its authors, Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1979.

de Beauregard proposed the following equations for biological transmutation:

                                                  n ® p + e- + n                    (1)

                                                  p + n « p + n'                    (2)

                                                  p « p' + n + n'                    (3)
          The Olivier Costa de Beauregard equations for biochemical transmutation

These equations imply the conversion of a neutron (n) to a proton (p) by virtual exchange processes -- the neutral currents of Weinberg.  These processes produce protons ( p and p') of different energy levels; and two neutrinos ( n and n') of different energy levels.  n represents the anitneutrino and e- the electron. In one state the proton will be bound to an atomic nucleus, and in the other state, it will be relatively free in a chemical binding.

Physicist Dr. Andrija Puharich managed to observe and photograph Kervran reactions in vitro, using a high-power dark-field microscope developed by the Canadian scientist, Gaston Naessens. Kervran reactions were documented by him to include the oxygen atom entering into a virtual nuclear reaction with p or n to yield 14N or 19F, using an electrolytic process similar to that of Prof. Yull Brown (discussed below), and disclosed by him as his U.S. Patent 4,394,230, Method and apparatus for splitting water molecules.

There exists as well the phenomenon of transmutative "digestion". L. Magos and T. W. Clarkson of the British Research Council Carshalton Laboratories noted disintegration of the radioactive isotope 203Hg ingested by rats, a volatilization that they ultimately attributed to such bacteria as Klebsiella aerogenes.

On June 19, 1995, Texas A&M University hosted a low-energy transmutation conference, sponsored by the "father of electrochemistry", Professor Emeritus, Dr. John O'M Bockris. Some of the papers noted anomalies in the formation of new elements in cathodes -- and definitely not sourced from contamination --  involved in cold-fusion experiments. For example: Drs. T. Ohmori and Reiko Notoya, both of Hokkaido University reported Iron formation in Gold and Palladium cathodes, Potassium changing into Calcium, Cs133 producing an element of mass 134, Na23 becoming Na24; Dr. John Dash of Portland State University reported spots of silver, cadmium and gold protruding in palladium electrodes in both light and heavy water cells; Dr. Robert Bush of California Polytechnic, Pomona, reported strontium on the surface of nickel cathodes.

Very pertinent is the long-term research by Dr. Georgiy S. Rabzi of the Ukrainian International Academy of Original Ideas who reviewed his analysis of the mechanism of low-temperature transmutation, conducted since 1954. He passed out to attendees samples: a steel nut which acquired the color of copper and was reduced in size; magnetic stainless steel turned non-magnetic, asbestos which became like ceramic. No radioactivity had been observed in any of his experiments and he is convinced that radioactive wastes can be stabilized.

These observations, originating from various domains of scientific research lay a solid case of low level -- with minuscule power and signal strength and sometimes even in the natural state -- advanced transmutation. This transmutation involves a process that is very different in character from that considered by AECL in their Environmental Impact Statement.

We now proceed to the experimental results obtained by advanced transmutation which have direct bearing on the problem of disposal of nuclear waste fuel.

Interaction with ionic hydrogen and ionic oxygen

Brown's Gas has been developed by a Bulgarian-born Australian national, Prof. Yull Brown. In his process, water is separated into its two constituents, hydrogen and oxygen in a way that allows them to be mixed under pressure and burn simultaneously and safely in a 2:1 proportion.

The proprietary process results in a gas containing ionic hydrogen and oxygen in proper mixes which is generated economically and safely and which may be compressed up to 100 psi.

Brown's Gas is a "cornerstone of a technological edifice" with many commercial and industrial applications.

At this time, Brown's Gas generators are mass produced in the Bautou, a major research city in the People's Republic of China by the huge NORINCO factory which also manufacturers locomotives and ordnances -- and services the nation's nuclear industry complex.  Most of these generators (producing up to 4,000 litres/hour/2.4 water at 0.45 MPa with power requirements ranging from 0.66 kW up to 13.2 kW) are marketed for their superior welding and brazing qualities, costing between $ 2,000 and $ 17,000.

Some units have been used for the decontamination of radioactive materials since 1991.  In general, Brown's Gas generators produce between 300 and 340 litres of Brown's Gas per 1 kW energy DC current approximately and one litre of water produces 1.866.6 approximately litres of gas. A generator which produces 10,000 litres per hour has been built specifically for the reduction of nuclear waste.

On August 24, 1991, Baotou's Nuclear Institute # 202 released a report, The results of experiments to dispose of radiation materials by Brown's Gas which establishes that experimentation on Cobalt 60 radiation source decreased radiation by about 50% or half-life of radiation -- but sometimes more radiation is decreased which needs investigation of possibilities for decreasing more of the radiation in single treatments of exposure to Brown's Gas flame, lasting only a few minutes, in the samples as described in the table below.

                                        First Experiment                              Second Experiment

          Source Intensity                    580 millirads/hour                    115 - 120 millirads/hour

          After Treatment                    220 - 240 millirads/hour                    42 millirads/hour

          De-radioactivation of Cobalt 60 by exposure to Brown's Gas flame for less than 10 minutes. 1991           experiments conducted by Baotou Nuclear Institute # 220, People's Republic of China.

 Prof. Brown in his Sydney workshop/factory (with Geoff Moxham)

In another test conducted by Yull Brown before a public audience including U.S. Congressman Hon. Berkeley Bedell with committee responsibilities in this area of concern, the experiment ran as follows as reported by the press:

Using a slice of radioactive Americium ... Brown melted it together on a brick with small chunks of steel and Aluminum ... After a couple of minutes under the flame, the molten metals sent up an instant flash in what Brown says is the reaction that destroys the radioactivity. Before the heating and mixing with the other metals, the Americium, made by the decay of an isotope of Plutonium, registered 16,000 curies per minute of radiation.  Measured afterward by the [Geiger Counter], the mass of metals read less than 100 curies per minute, about the same as the background radiation in the laboratory where Brown was working.

This experiment indicated a reduction of radiation in the order of over 99% (to about 0.00625 of original level) -- in less than 5 minutes, with minimal handling.  The improvement in the de-radioactivation process from about 50% to nearly 100% has come only with persistent research over the decades by Brown and his colleagues.

The Brown's Gas generating units that produced such effects are not expensive -- a far cry from the multi-million processes tabled by AECL.  They are powered by low energy requirements and require only small volumes of water, at most a few liters per hour as fuel. Furthermore, the training required for operation is minimal.

The Hon. Bedell has reported, "it has been my good pleasure to witness experiments done by Prof. Yull Brown in which it appeared to me that he significantly reduced the radioactivity in several nuclear materials.  Under the circumstances, I believe it is very important for our federal government to completely investigate  Dr. Yull Brown's accomplishments in this area."

On August 6, 1992, almost a year after the Chinese nuclear report, Prof. Yull Brown made a special demonstration to a team of 5 San Francisco field office observers from the United States Department of Energy, at the request of the Hon. Berkeley Bedell.  Cobalt 60 was treated and resulted in a drop of Geiger readings from 1,000 counts to 40 -- resulting in radioactive waste residue of about 0.04 of the original level.  Apprehensive that somehow the radioactivity might have been dispersed into the ambient environment, the official requested the California Department of Health Services to inspect the premises. The health services crew found no radioactivity in the air resulting from this demonstration nor from another repeat demonstration held for their benefit.

This sequence of experiments was monitored by the Hon. Daniel Haley, the legislator who established the forerunner New York State Energy Research and Development Agency.

Other demonstrations, measured with under more sophisticated protocol and instrumentation have been made before Japanese nuclear experts, including four scientists from Toshiba and Mitsui (Cobalt 60 of 24,000 mR/hr with one treatment to 12,000 mR/hr). The Japanese scientists were so excited by what they saw that they immediately purchased a generator and air shipped it to Japan.  They sent Prof. Brown a confidential report of some of their results. Subsequently, they tried to obtain addition Brown's Gas generators directly from the People's Republic of China.

Prof. Brown first successfully de-radioactivated radionuclides of Cobalt 60 in his laboratory in Sydney, Australia with first experimental results of about 50%. He believes the ratio should improve with further research and development -- which understandably by the very nature of the materials, can only be conducted under regulated conditions.

A Brown's Gas generator manufactured in the People's Republic of China

Prof. Brown, during his 27 years of studying water and its atomic structure, experimenting with disassociation of water into its constituent parts of hydrogen and oxygen has noted that there are many variations of the atomic structures of the various waters dependent on the mixing of the three hydrogen isotopes (1H - protium, 1H2 - deuterium, 1H3 - tritium) which combine into six combinations of hydrogen and the six oxygen isotopes (8O14, 8O15, 8O16, 8O17, 8O18, and 8O19 ) -- or practically, 36 types of water -- 18 are stable and 18 have short life.

Now, because we have all of these types of water, we could have 36 types of Brown's Gas, and much more with special modifications of the gas; at the moment only a few are under investigation. His studies have led to the observation that the anomalous behaviour of water depends on the ability of water to modify energetics and physicochemical properties of the various permutations of the hydrogen/oxygen isotopes. As is known the lifetime, modes of decay and thermal neutron capture cross-sections vary significantly between these isotopes; likewise, Brown has seen the various stages of his gas offer very different effects. He has found that he can modulate a number of suitable mixes for his technology, thus providing an engineering tool in decontamination of nuclear wastes.

Our Association is disposed to organize demonstrations of the effects of Brown's Gas on nuclear materials before the panel examining AECL'S Environmental Impact Statement.

Interaction with Non-Hertzian Energy

In the 1960's, the Canadian engineer, Wilbert Brockhouse Smith, a major player in advancing the technical aspects of radio and television broadcasting in Canada began experimenting with Caduceus coils and noted that this counterwinding set-up produced anomalous effects and proposed that other experimenters attempt to follow this new area of investigation. These coils became popularly known as the "Smith Coils" and he believed that they were producing, in summation, a "scalar" field -- a non-Hertzian phenomenon.

It is now known that similar non-Hertzian phenomena may also be obtained by mobius, and bi-filar coils which oppose their alternating currents by virtue of their unique geometry. The resultant of all electromagnetic energy is believed to sum to zero in accordance with Newton's third law, thereby orthorotating the zero-point-energy into our 3-space.

A recent investigation by Dr. Glen Rein and T. A. Gagnon, assisted by Prof. Elizabeth A. Rauscher (Nuclear Physics, University of California, Berkeley and with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, William Van Bise -- and with some support by Professor Emeritus (Material Sciences) William A. Tiller of Stanford University -- involved a modified Caduceus coil.

The 8.2 ohms coil indicated no electromagnetic fields even though powered with only 3 mA, 5 watt amplifier/mixer. Yet, the field from this set-up was able to decrease ambient radioactivity associated with environmental isotopes from 0.5 mR/hour to 0.0015 mR/hr -- or by 97%.

In contrast, Cobalt 60 increased its radioactivity from 150 to 250 mR/hour, in response to the non-Hertzian energy.

Thus the same non-Hertzian energy field produced opposite effects on different radioactive isotopes.

This type of experiment, which may have been highly dependent on the a mix of waveform signaling, involving superimposition of square waves containing specific repetition rates developed by Dynamic Engineering of Sacramento, California, indicates that research and development can determine the fine-tuning of special non-Hertzian procedures for the transmutation of specific isotopes.

Cost: less than $ 1,000 for a coil. Duration: about 24 hours. Result: up to 97 % reduction of radioactivity.

Another non-Hertzian approach to advanced transmutation has been hypothesized by the nuclear scientist, Tom E. Bearden and involves the use of "Whittaker scalar interferometry" directed in such a way as to directly extract electromagnetic energy from the mass of the radioactive nuclei.

In this system, the fundamental nuclear rates would be altered by way of "de-materializing" nuclei into constituent hidden (scalar) electromagnetic Whittaker energy.

E. T. Whittaker was a prominent British mathematician who published two papers of interest in this matter: 1) a general analysis of force fields into constituent fields -- differentiated into "undulatory", wave-disturbance propagation, longitudinal in character; and 2) an analysis  of electrons as being characterized by two scalar potential functions.  His work successfully pre-dates the experimental work of Y. Aharanov and D. Bohm who demonstrated that in the total absence of electromagnetic force fields, the potentials remain and can interfere at a distance to produce real effects of charged particle systems. Force fields are actually effects generated from potentials.

The figure below shows the conceptual use of a Whittaker Interferometer in the endothermic (energy extraction, electrostatic cooling) mode, for use in direct extraction of the electromagnetic energy constituting the radioactive nucleus.

By exposing the atomic nucleus to an externally engineered Whittaker-structured potential with a deterministic internal electromagnetic wave pattern, the internal structure of the mass potential may be slowly altered, changing the targeted atomic nucleus by gradually inducing a direct alteration of its internal Whittaker electromagnetic bi-wave composition.

Whittaker interferometer in endothermic mode for energy extraction from the mass potential of radioactive nuclei

A process based on this hypothesis remains proprietary, pending patent application, but could be demonstrated at a later date.

Our Association is disposed to organize demonstrations of the effects of scalar, non-Hertzian devices on nuclear materials before the panel examining AECL'S Environmental Impact Statement…


This submission has been prepared with the interventions of:

Lt. Col. (retired) Tom E. Bearden
Prof. Emeritus Dr. John O'M Bockris
Prof. Yull Brown
Prof. Pelayo Calante
Prof. Dr. Olivier Costa de Beauregard
Dr. Hal Fox
Lan Jin, M. Eng
Dr. Andrew Michrowski
Prof. Elizabeth A. Rauscher
Dr. Glen Rein
Lioudmila Ter, M. Eng
Prof. Emeritus William A. Tiller
Prof. Tom Valone, P.E.
William Van Bise, P.E
Prof. Meludin Veledar

We are also grateful for useful contributions of:

Prof. Phillip Crabbé
Kristopher Weiss

…Advanced Transmutation

Aharonov, Y. and D. Bohm.  Significance of electromagnetic potentials in the quantum theory.  Physical Review, Second series. Vol. 115, Number 3., August 1, 1959. p. 485-491. [In the total absence of electromagnetic force fields, the potentials remain and can interfere at a distance to produce real effects of charged particle systems. Forced fields are actually effects generated from potentials. See: Whittaker's two papers and research by T. E. Bearden on radioactive neutralization.]

Anomalous water -- explained by Brown's Gas research. Planetary Association for Clean Energy Newsletter. Vol. 6 (4), July, 1993. p. 11 - 12.

Bearden, T. E.. A redefinition of the energy ansatz, leading to a fundamentally new class of nuclear interactions. In: Proceedings of the 27th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, California. 1992. IECEC, c/o American Nuclear Society. Vol. IV. p. 4.303 - 4.310.

Bird, Christopher. The destruction of radioactive nuclear wastes: does Professor Yull Brown have the solution ?  Explore !  Volume 3, Number 5. 1992. p. 3.

Brown, Yull. Welding. U.S. Patent 4,014,777. March 29, 1977. ["The invention also relates to atomic welding to which the mixture {of hydrogen and oxygen generated ion substantially stoichiometric proportions} is passed through an arc causing disassociation of both the hydrogen and oxygen into atomic hydrogen and oxygen which on recombination generate an extremely hot flame."]

Brown, Yull. Arc-assisted oxy/hydrogen welding. U.S. Patent 4,081,656. March 28, 1978.

Bruch, R., Elizabeth A. Rauscher, H. Wang, T. Tanaka and D. Schneider. Bulletin of the American Physical Society. Volume 37, 1992. [Discusses nature of variable decay rates of the radioactive nuclides, and the basis for their interaction with electromagnetic and gravitational forces].

Bruch, R., Elizabeth A. Rauscher, S. Fuelling, D. Schneider. Collision processes of molecules and atoms. In: L. Byass, editor. Encyclopedia of applied physics. American Institute of Physics. 1993. [Discusses nature of variable decay rates of the radioactive nuclides, and the basis for their interaction with electromagnetic and gravitational forces].

Costa de Beauregard, Olivier.  The expanding paradigm of the Einstein Theory.  In: Andrija Puharich, editor. Iceland Papers. New York. Essentia Research Associates. 1979. 190 p.; p. 161-189.

Dudley, H. C..  Radioactivity re-examined. CAEN Editors. April 7, 1975.  [Review of deviation of radioactive decay rates].

Haley, Daniel.  Transmutation of radioactive materials with Yull Brown's Gas -- 2500% radioactivity reduction. Planetary Association for Clean Energy Newsletter. Vol. 6 (4), July, 1993. p. 8 -9.

Harada, K. and Elizabeth A. Rauscher. Unified theory of Alpha decay. Physical Review. Volume 169, 1968. P. 818

Harada, K. and Elizabeth A. Rauscher. Alpha decay of Po212 ® Pb208, , Po210 ® Pb206, treated by the Unified Theory of Alpha decay. UCRL-70513, May, 1967.

Kervran, C. Louis. Biological transmutations. Magalia, CA. Happiness Press. 1989. 163 p.

Kervran, C. Louis. Transmutation of the elements in oats: new analyses. Planetary Association for Clean Energy Newsletter. Vol. 2 (3), July/August 1980. p. 4-6.

Kervran, C. Louis. Transmutation à faible énergie. Paris Maloine. 1972.

Magos, L. and T. W. Clarkson.  Volatilization of mercury by bacteria.  British Journal of Industrial Medicine. October, 1964. p. 294-8.

Rabzi, Georgiy S.  Mechanism of low temperature transmutation. In: John O'M. Bockris. Proceedings of Low-energy Transmutation Conference, Texas A&M University, June 19, 1995.
[Manuscript in progress]. [Available from New Energy News, P. O. Box 58639, Salt Lake City, Utah 84158-8639; (801) 583-6232, fax: 583-2963]

Rauscher, Elizabeth A. and R. Bruch. S-matrix theory of Alpha decay. [Book manuscript in progress.]

Puharich, Andrija [Henry K.]. Successful treatment of neoplasms in mice with gaseous superoxide anion (O2) and Ozone (O3) with rationale for effect. New York. Essentia Research Associates. [Presented to Sixth Ozone World Congress. International Ozone Association. May 26-28, 1983. Washington.] 89 p. [Pages 5-7 discuss numerous in vitro biological transmutation or Kervran reactions.]

Puharich, Andrija [Henry K.]. Method and apparatus for splitting water molecules. U.S. Patent 4,394,230. July 18, 1983.

Rauscher, Elizabeth A.. Study and application of the modification of nuclear decay rates by changes in atomic states. Tecnic Research Laboratories, Nevada. April, 1993. 28 p. [Protocol for design, test and implementation of decay rate change effects to nuclear waste materials].

Rauscher, Elizabeth A.  The properties of Plutonium and comparison to other metallic elements. University of California, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. February 23, 1991. [Set basis for variable decay rates of the radioactive nuclides -- and their interaction with electromagnetic and gravitational forces].

Rein, Glen.  Ability of non-Hertzian energy to modulate Cobalt-60 radioactivity.  [Manuscript prepared for CEAA presentation]. 1 sheet.

Rein, Glen.  Utilization of a cell culture bioassay for measuring quantum fields generated from a modified Caduceus Coil.  In: Proceedings of the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Boston, Massachusetts. IECEC, c/o American Nuclear Society. August, 1991. 4 pages. [Specific details regarding protocol and procedure used for modulation of radioactivity].

Smith, Wilbert B.. The new science. Ottawa. The Keith Press. 1964. 72 p.

Soinski, A. J., Elizabeth A. Rauscher and J. O. Rasmussen. Alpha particle amplitude and phases in the decay of 253Es.  Bulletin of American Physical Society. Volume 18, 1973. p.768. [Modulation of decay rate of radionuclides by extra nuclear environmental conditions].

Yull Brown's Gas. Planetary Association for Clean Energy Newsletter. Vol. 6 (4), July, 1993. p. 10 - 11.

Whittaker, E. T..  On the partial differential equations of mathematical physics. Mathematische Annalen. Vol. 57,. 1903. p. 333-355. [Demonstrates that a standing scalar potential wave can be decomposed into a special set of directional electromagnetic waves that convolute into a standing scalar potential wave. As a corollary, then, a set of bi-directional electromagnetic waves -- stress waves -- can be constructed to form such a wave in space. Whittaker's wave represents a standing wave of variation in the local curvature of vacuum.]

Whittaker, E. T..  On an expression of the electromagnetic field due to electrons by means of two scalar potential functions.  Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society.  Vol. 1. 1904. p. 367-72. [Shows how to turn a standing scalar potential wave back into electromagnetic energy, even at a distance, by scalar potential interferometry, anticipating and greatly expanding the famous Aharonov-Bohm effect, predating the modern (Bohm) hidden variable theory of quantum potentials.  Such a procedure could be developed to neutralize radioactive nuclei.]

(C) All Rights Reserved. This article is copyrighted by the author and is published on this web site solely for educational purposes.
Excerpted From the Planetary Association for Clean Energy Inc. @ http://pacenet.homestead.com/Nucwaste.html

For more information about nuclear waste see http://nexusilluminati.blogspot.com/search/label/nuclear%20waste
For more information about Brown’s Gas see http://nexusilluminati.blogspot.com/search/label/Brown’s%20gas
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1 comment:

  1. See Simple Solutions for FukUshima Radiation @ http://nexusilluminati.blogspot.com/2014/03/simple-solutions-for-fukushima.html


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