Freeing Energy: A Redefinition of the Energy Ansatz, Leading to a
Fundamentally New Class of Nuclear Interactions
Copyright © T. E. Bearden
Association of Distinguished American Scientists
Association of Distinguished American Scientists
Utilizing
fundamentally new definitions for energy, potential, and scalar potential, the mass of the atomic nucleus
may be considered a powerful electrostatic scalar potential, referred to as the
mass potential. The Whittaker EM biwave structure of the scalar
potential then becomes a new and universal internal EM structure for mass,
including the atomic nucleus.
This
structure can be directly manipulated electromagnetically, which allows direct
EM alteration of the mass potential, and the nucleus itself. This totally new
class of nuclear interactions is briefly explored, and several hypothesized mechanisms
advanced for neutralizing or processing nuclear wastes. Additional applications
are hypothesized for experimental falsification or verification.
Some New Fundamental Definitions
To
explain why more precise definitions are important, we quote a statement by
Einstein: [Ref
1]
"...
the scientist makes use of a whole arsenal of concepts which he imbibed
practically with his mother's milk; and seldom if ever is he aware of the
eternally problematic character of his concepts. He uses this conceptual
material, or, speaking more exactly, these conceptual tools of thought, as
something obviously, immutably given; something having an objective value of
truth which is hardly ever, and in any case not seriously, to be doubted. ...
in the interests of science it is necessary over and over again to engage in
the critique of these fundamental concepts, in order that we may not
unconsciously be ruled by them."
Energy is any ordering, either static or dynamic, in the virtual particle flux of vacuum. [Ref 3] Electromagnetic energy is any ordering, either static or dynamic, in the virtual photon flux of vacuum. [Ref 4] Work is the local scattering of energy -- the total disordering of the order in the virtual particle flux.[Ref 5]
A potential is any ordering, either static or dynamic or combination thereof, in the virtual particle flux of vacuum. [Ref 6] Note that this makes the new definitions of potential and energy synonymous -- a potential is pure energy, a priori.[Ref 7] The potential also must be totally ordered internally, which is a quite new concept for physics.[Ref 8] Both energy and potential are collections of the individual energies of a host of individually-moving virtual particles. Neither energy nor the potential are directly observable, because the order is in and of the virtual state. A scalar potential is any static (stationary) ordering in the virtual particle flux of vacuum, with respect to the external observer. A vector potential is any dynamic (non-stationary) ordering in the virtual particle flux of vacuum, with respect to the external observer. Both scalar and vector potentials have totally ordered, nonlocal, Whittaker hyperspatial interiors.[Ref 9]
Scalar potentials and vector potentials are simply different subsets of the energy domain. Both are stable forms in a dynamic VPF medium. One is stationary with respect to the external observer; the other is translating. Both potentials are open systems, continually being supplied with wave energy flowing in from the external universe, and continually emitting wave energy flowing out to the external universe. Both kinds of potentials possess ordered internal Whittaker bidirectional wave structures, flowing throughout local and nonlocal space wherever the particular potential has a nonzero convolution value.[Ref 10]
We shall concentrate on scalar potentials. An electrostatic scalar potential is any static (stationary) ordering in the virtual photon flux of vacuum. Its ordered Whittaker structure is an ordered lattice of spacetime/vacuum (Figure 1), and consists of a Fourier expansion of harmonic transverse EM plane waves, coupled to the phase conjugate of the expansion in 1:1 ratio. Scalar (potential) interferometry [Ref 11] between two or more scalar EM potentials is just the multiple simultaneous interferometry of their constituent Whittaker waves.
Since we are interested here primarily in EM, then to first order we take vacuum/spacetime to be an electrostatic scalar potential.
The Statistical Graviton Concept
With
respect to the electrostatic scalar potential, a conceptual problem still exists. To trap EM
energy, it would seem necessary to trap photons. Since any photon in the vacuum
would seem of necessity to be moving at an average velocity c, one questions
how one could have a "stationary ordering" of these extremely fast
photons? Here one must turn to quantum electrodynamics (QED), where EM fields
can interact with each other in ways other than the linear superposition
existing in classical EM theory. In QED, waves can interact, couple, etc. -- as
can photons.[Ref
15] We simply argue that, in one bidirectional waveset of a Whittaker
structure, the antiwave is a true phase conjugate of the wave, hence its true
time reversal.[Ref
16] We also argue that, if the antiwave envelope is totally coordinated
with the wave envelope, then the antiphotons must be totally coordinated with
the photons.
We
crudely visualize the photons and antiphotons moving "through" the
inner space (hyperspace), coupling and uncoupling continually, which they can
do since one is the precise phase conjugate of the other. But when momentarily
coupled, the photon/antiphoton paired system has helicity 2, and is void of resultant
E and H fields, so is temporarily devoid of the requirement for moving through
space at c, light velocity. In other words, when coupled to the
photon/antiphoton pair forms a spin-2 graviton, and the graviton system
is stationary.[Ref
17] Shortly the photon and antiphoton decouple and each moves to couple
with another partner. So in the potential there is a continual creation and
annihilation of ordered spin-2 gravitons, and those statistical gravitons are
what comprise the "electrostatic scalar potential."[Ref
18]
Quantum Change Is Engineerable
Because
of the role of the potential in the Schroedinger equation, and the quantum potential in
hidden variable theory, the unexpected Whittaker bidirectional wave order
inside the scalar potential implies that quantum change (QC) is chaotic, not
random. QC is in fact totally deterministic in this view, but the external
macroscopic observer normally has no information on the specific VPF causative
agents. Viewing quantum change as chaotic, it follows that it may be at least
partially engineerable, if one can input and control the fundamental
hidden order.
The Activated Local Vacuum And The Vacuum Engine
The
locally activated spacetime now becomes a sort of vacuum engine that interacts directly and
specifically with any physical system existing in it.[Ref
23] This application of the Whittaker method is similar to producing a
wideband multifrequency radar signal, coupled to its simultaneous phase
conjugation. The question now arises that, given the facility to construct an
artificial potential as a local vacuum engine, what can be done with it to
engineer the atomic nucleus?
Concept Of The Mass Potential
As is
well-known, the modern view of gravitational attraction of masses is that it is due to the trapped
energy of those masses. To first order, we view the trapped energy in a mass as
trapped EM energy, where the Einstein formula E=mc^{2} gives the
magnitude of this mass-trapped EM energy.
Since most of the mass of the atom is in the atomic nucleus, we must change the vacuum VPF exchange with that nucleus if we wish to directly and deterministically manipulate the nucleus. I.e., we must alter and engineer the nuclear mass potential. To do this, we take advantage of the fact that the Whittaker decomposition of the scalar potential applies to the mass potential of the nucleus. In other words, there is now a universal internal EM structure for mass, and that structure can be manipulated and engineered directly by Whittaker EM means. By altering its internal Whittaker structure (WS), the nucleus can be altered and changed. Conceivably the trapped EM energy of the mass of the nucleus can even be extracted and dispersed, dematerializing the nucleus.
To engineer the nucleus one must alter its VPF exchange with its local vacuum, changing the internal Whittaker waveset components of the nucleus. The artificial potential one applies creates scalar interferometry in the immediately surrounding vacuum flux, resulting in the introduction of chaotic EM energy (order) into the VPF absorption by the nucleus, and so into its internal mass potential. As time passes, more and more chaotic flux has entered the nucleus and been absorbed. The Whittaker structure of the mass potential thus will slowly "charge up" to a degree, with the incoming altered VPF pattern. Direct alteration of the "activated" or "charged-up" nucleus will gradually occur.
Inherent in this approach is the assumed primary postulate that every nuclear structure is already an equilibrium state or "form" in the virtual particle flux exchange with the vacuum. In this case, the internal energetic structure of the mass of the nucleus is changed slowly. With sufficient phenomenology measurements and experiments, we should be able to ascertain the specific artificial potential structures necessary to activate desired specific changes in the atomic nucleus.[Ref 24] Once the phenomenology is clarified in this fashion, one should be able to produce specific nuclear changes as desired.
Chaotic Nuclear Fission
As an
example, consider nuclear fission of a radioactive element. The atomic nucleus is already in
an unbalance energy state, but in an "energy well" or trap. However,
it continually receives fluctuations in the background VPF absorbed from the
local vacuum. According, its energy level is continually fluctuating about its
"average" or nominal level, driven by the incoming fluctuations. If,
for example, it receives a sufficiently powerful fluctuation for a sufficient
duration, its energy level can change sufficiently for it to fission due to the
extra absorbed energy.
In this
view, then, each nuclear fission is entirely deterministic. However, the
external observer normally has absolutely no information on the incoming energy
fluctuations, or the causality. Hence he can make no predictions for fission of
a specific nucleus, but can only treat fission statistically for large
ensembles of fissionable nuclei. In this view nuclear fission is chaotic,
with hidden order but still statistical to the external observer.
Need For Neutralization
A highly
desirable alternative would be the safe prompt neutralization of the
bulk of the radioactive wastes. As a first approach, the fundamental nuclear decay chains themselves
could be altered. Ideally new decay chains could be found in locally
asymmetrical ST conditions, with substantially reduced levels of harmful
nuclear radiation and byproducts. If successful, this approach would be an
improvement over prompt fissioning, but for longer-lived radioactive isotopes,
decreasing the release time still would involve appreciable emission of nuclear
radiation, and accumulation of undesirable radioactive byproducts.
Applying Scalar Interferometry
It would
be ideal if the trapped EM energy in the mass potentials of the radioactive
nuclei could be
extracted and converted directly into nonlinear Whittaker scalar potentials --
into pure, hidden EM hyperspatial energy. Theses resulting energetic potentials
could be formed into beams in a Whittaker scalar interferometer, to transmit
the extracted EM energy through hyperspace to a distant interference (discharge)
zone for release harmlessly as heat or electricity which radiates away.[Ref
26]
It would
be highly desirable to utilize a more distant scalar interference "energy
dump" zone, beyond the atmosphere and out in space, well away from the
earth. The energy would be extracted by a scalar interferometer used in an endothermic
mode, and would be "dumped" at the distant disposal site by a
scalar interferometer used in an exothermic mode.
Figure 4 shows the conceptual use of a Whittaker interferometer in the exothermic mode, for use in transferring the extracted EM heat energy to a distant dump IZ. Again, mode control is achieved by relative biasing of the electrical ground of the interferometer, compared to the ambient potential of the IZ.
From a review of the two cited Whittaker papers, both uses of the Whittaker scalar interferometer (WSI) appear feasible. If so, with a suitable deterministic Whittaker structure, an endothermic WSI could be used to directly extract the EM energy from the mass of the radioactive nuclei, in essence dematerializing those nuclei and thereby completely neutralizing them, and producing large quantities of heat. The heat could be temporarily captured in a reservoir, and used as an input to an exothermic WSI which transmits the extracted EM energy through hyperspace to a spatial IZ point safely beyond the earth's atmosphere, dumping the waste EM energy there, so that it radiates harmlessly away into space as heat and light.
Other Potential Applications
Obviously
a great many other potential applications of this approach suggest themselves for
investigation. We
have previously pointed out two successful experiments by Sweet, one for
extracting useful EM energy from the vacuum, and one for production of
unilateral forces (without Newtonian third law recoil), including antigravity.[Ref
28] We have also pointed out the implications of the approach for possible
testable unification of electromagnetics, general relativity, and quantum
mechanics.[Ref
29]
In other
publications we have also pointed out the implications for application to
neural science and to medical science, particularly for development of new healing
therapies for presently incurable or nearly incurable major diseases.[Ref
30] It has also been suggested that earth stress lights, known in over 1200
locations in the U.S. alone, may be due to natural scalar interferometry, where
the stressed sides of a rock fault, with stress relief in the fault,
piezoelectrically produce Whittaker potentials on each side of the fault,
resulting in distant-interfering Whittaker scalar potential interferometry.[Ref
31] It has also been suggested that ball lightning is a similar Whittaker
scalar potential phenomenon, due to separately highly charged clouds acting as
a Whittaker scalar potential interferometers.
Further,
it has been experimentally proven that living systems accomplish limited
transmutation of elements, with minuscule power and signal strength.[Ref
32] Whittaker scalar interferometry modification of the atomic nucleus has
been hypothesized as the active mechanism utilized.[Ref
33] Finally, it has been hypothesized that living systems utilize the inner
EM for thought formations, thinking, long term memory storage in mass
potentials of atomic nuclei, and for deep cellular control, as in the master
cellular control system discovered by Popp.[Ref
34] Numerous other potential applications can readily be constructed.
Conclusion
In this
paper we have proposed major new definitions of some fundamental entities in
physics, which lead
to an altered perspective on spacetime and matter interaction. These
definitions, which amount to a redefinition of the entire energy ansatz
(beginning), imply a totally new class of nuclear interactions, where the mass
of the nucleus is considered as a powerful scalar EM potential, with a directly
engineerable internal Whittaker bidirectional EM wave structure. The new internal,
hyperspatial EM hypothetically can be utilized to directly engineer the
Schroedinger equation, thereby deterministically engineering quantum change
itself. In addition, both atomic nuclei and the vacuum/spacetime can be
activated, so that they become active engines, interacting preferentially with
local systems, which are driven by their altered virtual photon flux exchange
with the surrounding vacuum.
Notes And References
1.
Quoted
from Albert Einstein, "Foreword", to Max Jammer, Concepts of
Space: The History of Theories of Space in Physics, Harvard University
Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1969, p. xi-xii.
2.
The
quantum mechanical vacuum (QMV) concept in quantum field theory is just the
modification of the classical "empty vacuum" concept to take into
account the spontaneous creation and annihilation of virtual particles,
required by quantum mechanics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. The QMV
is a plenum, not an emptiness, and it is filled with enormous energy. Cf
Timothy Boyer, "The classical vacuum", Sci. Am., Aug. 1985,
p.70; Walter Greiner and Joseph Hamilton, "Is the Vacuum Really
Empty?", Am. Sci., Mar.-Apr. 1980, p.154; I.J.R. Aitchison,
"Nothing's plenty: The Vacuum in modern quantum field theory", Contempt.
Phys., 26(4), 1985, p.333-391; Jack S. Greenberg and Walter Greiner,
"Search for the sparking of the vacuum", Phys. Today, Aug.
1982, p.24-32; Richard E. Prange and Peter Strance, "The semiconducting
vacuum", Am. J. Phys., 52(1), Jan. 1984, p.19-21; R. Jackiw and
J.R. Schrieffer, "The decay of the vacuum", Nucl. Phys. B.,
190, 1981, p.944.
3.
The
present definitions of energy in physics are quite vague and often in error.
Energy is usually defined as the "capacity to do work". From our
viewpoint, such a "definition" states that "order is the
disordering of order", which is erroneous. Certainly energy has
the capacity to do work, because it can be scattered. Stated in that fashion,
it is just a statement about energy, and acceptable. But one cannot
properly say that energy is the capacity to do the work. In fact
that current "definition" has no content as to the actual nature
of energy.
4.
To
define a particular field of energy, we simply select the quantum particle of
that field and consider just the order in that particle's virtual flux in the
vacuum. In other words, we select one type of potential from the conglomerate
of potentials that comprise the vacuum.
5.
Negative
work is also possible. E.g., by imposing a phase conjugate reflection,
theoretically the scattered (disordered) energy used to perform work can be retroreflected
afterwards, restoring the original order (energy), which can then again be
disordered (used as work). We accent that this does not violate overall
conservation of energy. The system is not closed , but is open and driven
by its seething virtual particle flux (VPF) exchange with the vacuum. Every
charged particle and every atomic nucleus is in such a violent VPF exchange,
and is a driven, open system. With a gating process (such as phase
conjugate retroreflection), Prigogine's thermodynamics of nonlinear system away
from thermodynamic equilibrium applies. For an example of phase conjugate
retroreflective reordering of EM energy after it has been scattered, see David
M. Pepper, "Applications of optical phase conjugation", Sci. Am.,
254(1), Jan 1986, p.65.
6.
There
is presently no acceptable definition of potential in physics. The
acceptable "definition" of the electrostatic scalar potential (ESP),
e.g. is simply a prescription for calculating its magnitude. It does not at all
tell what the ESP is. See also Note 7.
7.
See
"Potential", in Robert M. Besancon, Ed., The Encyclopedia of
Physics, 2nd Edn., Van Nostrand and Reinhold, New York, 1974, p.729-731.
The concept of potential has developed as two fundamental notions: (1) as the
"internal" storage of energy in some fashion, and (2) as a scalar
function whose space rate of change yields a vector force. Our comment is that
the two cited E.T. Whittaker papers, together with the QMV, drastically
enlighten both notions, extending the understanding of what a scalar potential
actually is (both internally and externally), and its non-local, internal,
hyperspatial energetic connection with the rest of the universe.
8.
The
ordering itself is still an equilibrium form in an open system. Due to the
flux, virtual particles are continually entering, leaving, or appearing and
disappearing in the equilibrium form. The ordering is like a whirlpool in a
river: The form or ordering may be stable, but the water molecules are
continually passing through the stable, ordered form. If we control or alter
the input and output flows, we can control and alter the equilibrium form at
will, even to dispersing or "dematerializing" it.
9.
The
ordering structure is mathematically given by E.T. Whittaker, "On the
partial differential equations of mathematical physics", Math. Ann.,
Vol 57, 1903, p.333-355. See also E.T. Whittaker, "On an expression of the
electromagnetic filed due to electrons by means of two scalar potential
functions", Proc. Lond. Math. Soc., Series 2, Vol. 1, 1094,
p.367-372. More recently the Whittaker structure (WS) inside potentials --
including the Schroedinger potential -- has been shown by V.K. Ignatovich,
"The remarkable capabilities of recursive relations", Am. J. Phys.,
57(10), Oct. 1989, p.873-878. For the same in acoustics, see Richard W.
Ziolkowski, "Localized transmission of wave energy", Proc. SPIE,
Vol. 1061, Microwave and Particle Beam Sources and Directed Energy Concepts,
Jan. 1989, p.396-397.
10.
The
local (spatial) aspects of the scalar potential are its magnitude and gradient
at a point in 3-space. The nonlocal (hyperspatial) aspects are the organized
internal flows of energetic waves through hyperspace, to and from that
"magnitude/gradient" point in 3-space and every other point in
3-space.
11.
Per
Whittaker, 1904, ibid.
12.
The
conglomeration implication for vacuum-spacetime of these definitions, or of the
gist of them, has previously been pointed out by W. Misner, K.S. Thorne and
J.A. Wheeler, Gravitation, 1973, p.399. Quoting: "... The terms
'gravitational field' and 'gravity' refer in vague, collective sort of way to
all of these entities. Another, equivalent term for them is the 'geometry of
spacetime.'" Our comment is as follows: In other words, the notion of
the geometry of spacetime is also a vague, conglomerated concept, and it also
must not be primary, but must be composed of other field effects and things --
which of course is Sakharov's hypothesis that gravitation is not even a primary
field of nature, but is always due to interactions and effects of other fields.
See A.D. Sakharov, "Vacuum Quantum Fluctuations in Curved Space and the
Theory of Gravitation", Sov. Phys. Dokl., Vol. 12, 1968, p.1040.
13.
E.T.
Whittaker, 1904, ibid.
14.
H.E.
Puthoff, Phys. Rev. D., 35(10), May 15, 1987, p.3266-3269.
15.
Indeed,
in QED a photon can even interfere with itself. There are still serious
problems with the photon concept, however. Four different major models are
used. Cf. Richard Kidd et Al, "Evolution of the modern photon", Am.
J. Phys., 57(1), Jan. 1989, p.27-35. The "energy" of a photon is
not localized, but is distributed over the entire volume of the field and there
is, in general, no use in attaching a coordinate to the photon. A photon in
general cannot be described by wavefunction, but only for special cases. In
geometrical optics as well as Maxwell's electrodynamics, there is no room for
photons. The complex one-photon wavefunction should not be identified with the
EM field. For a given photon number, the electric or magnetic fields at a point
cannot be measured as a function of time. For states with a fixed photon
number, the expectation value of the electric field is zero even for a very
large photon number, so that in this case the correspondence principle cannot
be used. For additional strong anomalies in the photon concept, see J. Strand,
"Photons in introductory quantum physics", Am. J. Phys.,
54(7), July 1986, p.650-652. In his later years Einstein wrote: "All
these 50 years of pondering have not brought me closer to answering the
question: what are light quanta? Of course, today, every rascal thinks he knows
the answer, but he is mistaken". (P. Speziali, Ed., Albert
Einstein-Michele Besso Correspondence 1903-1955, Hermann, Paris, 1972.)
16.
For
proof that the phase conjugate antiwave is truly time-reversed, cf. M. Ohno and
K. Takagi, "Schlieren visualization of acoustic phase conjugate waves
generated by nonlinear electroacoustic interaction in LiNbO_{3}", Appl.
Phys. Lett., 60(1), Jan. 6, 1992, p.29-31.
17.
Note
this concept represents a unification of EM and gravitation.
18.
If
the average coupling is spin-2, then the local vacuum/ST is said to be uncurved.
It possesses time symmetry, charge symmetry, and does not preferentially
interact with locally embedded systems. If on the other hand the average
coupling is greater than 2 (say, 2.1), then the local vacuum/ST is curved.
It has time and charge asymmetry, and preferentially interacts with systems.
Specifically, it has a surplus of coupled photons, is activated and excited,
and so can "decay" to serve as an EM energy source. If the
average coupling is less than 2 (say, 1.9), then the local vacuum/ST is curved
in the other direction. It has time and charge asymmetry, and preferentially
interacts with systems. Specifically, it has a deficiency of coupled photons,
is activated and excited, and can serve as an EM energy sink. By
tailoring the Whittaker structure of potentials and adding them to the local
vacuum, such curvature effects can be produced.
19.
In
fact there is strong evidence for this. First, the Newtonian third law reaction
is essentially universal. In quantum field theory, Newton's action force is
generated by the exchange of virtual photons. The phase conjugate
(time-reversed) third-law "anti-action" force must be generated by
exchange of virtual antiphotons. Further, these antiphotons do not
normally emerge from the nucleus out through the electron shells and enter the
external circuit to be measured. Hence they must "burrow within" the
atom to react with the nucleus. The point is, there are almost always two
photons that interacted, not just one. It follows that, if we divert the
antiphotons from going to the nucleus and instead we switch them outside the
atom, the Newtonian third law reaction force should vanish. Precisely
this happens. In a pumped phase conjugate mirror, the mirror does not
recoil when antiphotons are emitted as a phase conjugate replica wave. This
provides strong experimental evidence of the decoupled antiphoton's generation
of Newton's third law reaction, and the binary-photon (graviton) interaction
concept.
20.
Richard
Kidd et Al, 1989, ibid, p.30. Also see E. Goldwasser, Optics, Waves, Atoms
and Nuclei, Benjamin, New York, 1965, preliminary edn., p.190-191.
21.
Indeed,
one can conceivably build-in any higher dimensional aspect one wishes, by
nesting. I.e., one chooses one of the internal EM waves in Whittaker set. One
expresses that wave as the interference of two scalar potentials, via Whittaker
1904. Then each of these two hidden scalar potentials in turn has a hidden
bidirectional Whittaker waveset structure, which again can be deterministically
tailored. The second engineered waveset is in yet a higher hyperdimension than
was the first waveset. Theoretically this can be repeated as many times as
desired.
X22.
Note
that this "activation" of the local vacuum and spacetime constitutes
a local curvature, as discussed in Note 18 above. The activated local
vacuum/spacetime has now become a vacuum engine. We are attempting to accomplish
controlled vacuum engineering, in the sense referred to by Nobel Laureate T.D.
Lee, Particle Physics and Introduction to Field Theory, Harwood, New
York, 1981, Chapter 25: Outlook, "Possibility of Vacuum Engineering",
p.824-828. As Lee points out, this has not yet been tried in physics, but it
may be possible to do it. Our assertion is that applying the Whittaker
methodology is a major way to do it deterministically and testably.
23.
A
locally activated spacetime (ST) is a curved local ST, where the much stronger
EM force is utilized as a curvature agent. Curved local ST violates local
symmetry in one fashion or another; by the CPT theorem, one must only uphold
overall CPT symmetry, not individual symmetries. Violation of a local symmetry
usually occurs in pairs; e.g., violation of local charge symmetry and local
time symmetry. In this fashion a curved ST (vacuum engine) may serve as
either a source or sink for EM energy, but there will be associated changes in
the local time rate of flow. We stress that such local asymmetry of ST is
possible only because everything is a driven, open system and is not closed. If
one extends one's system consideration, overall symmetry and conservation laws
are upheld. For consideration of what can be done with a locally asymmetrical
ST, see E.B. Smetanin, "Electromagnetic field in a space with curvature --
new solutions", Sov. Phys. J., 25(2), Feb. 1982, p.107-111.
24.
E.g.,
we have hypothesized that living systems can much more readily transmute along
the isomer chain, since converting a single proton to a neutron or vice versa
would suffice. Flipping one quark would be all that was required in that case,
which should be much easier than wholesale moving of entire nucleons. As an
example, chickens were shown by Kervran to be able to transmute potassium into
calcium, and his experiments were rigorously replicated by Japanese
researchers. It is pointed out that one isotope of potassium is a natural
isomer for calcium, and could be converted by the "single quark flip"
hypothesis. See also Note 32.
25.
Note
that this is precisely producing a local asymmetry in the spacetime (ST) which
the radioactive nucleus occupies. For proof that the nuclear decay probability
increases in a locally asymmetrical ST, see V.I. Petukhov and I.A. Kuzin,
"Weak processes in the field of a gravitational wave", Sov. Phys.
J., 27(12), Dec. 1984, p.1025-1029.
26.
For
the theory (and proof) of scalar potential interferometry, see E.T. Whittaker,
1904, ibid.
27.
For
mathematical proof, see Whittaker, 1904, ibid.
28.
Floyd
Sweet and T.E. Bearden, "Utilizing scalar electromagnetics to tap vacuum
energy", Proceedings of the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion
Engineering Conference (IECEC '91), Aug. 4-9, 1991, Boston, Massachusetts,
p.370-375.
29.
T.E.
Bearden and Walter Rosenthal, "On a testable unification of
electromagnetics, general relativity, and quantum mechanics", Proceedings
of the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC '91),
Aug. 4-9, 1991, Boston, Massachusetts, p.487-492.
30.
T.E.
Bearden, Gravitobiology, Tesla Book Co., 604 Date Ave., Chula Vista, CA,
91910, 1991.
31.
T.E.
Bearden, Fer-de-Lance, Tesla Book Co., 1986. For report of a rigorous
scientific experiment with earth stress lights, conducted by Vestigia, see T.E.
Bearden, The Excalibur Briefing, 2nd Edn., Strawberry Hill Press and
Tesla Book Co., 1988, p.35-52. In the book my explanation, actually written in
1978, was incomplete and, in light of today's understanding, it was also
substantially flawed. The Vestigia experiment, however, was rigorous and
flawless.
32.
In
1977 Louis Kervran was nominated for a Nobel Prize for having proven that
living systems transmute elements to a limited degree. His work was replicated
by Japanese researchers and others, but is still unknown to most biologists and
biophysicists. See Louis Kervran, Transmutations a Faible Energie
(Naturelles et Biologiques), Maloine S.A., Paris, 1982.
33.
T.E.
Bearden, Gravitobiology, 1991. E.g., the two cerebral hemispheres of the
brain are hypothesized to be usable as an exceedingly weak scalar potential
interferometer (per Whittaker 1904, ibid).
34.
Cf.
Fritz Albert Popp, "Photon Storage in Biological Systems", in Fritz
Albert Popp et Al, Eds., Electromagnetic Bio-Information: Proceedings of the
Symposium, Marburg, September 5, 1977, Urban & Schwarzenberg,
Baltimore, 1979, p.123-149; also Biophotonen. Ein neuer weg zur Losung des
Krebsproblems, Verlag fur Medizin, Heidelberg, 1976^{in German}.
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