Hidden Histories of the British Isles
King Offa (Arthur) of Mercia (Northern England)
Written by Abdun Nur
Britanniae: United Kingdom, all 4 regions, Albion: England, Wales and Scotland, and Iernē: Eirē - Ireland.
In ancient Assyria between 720-687 BC, a certain people called the Ten Tribes of Israel - known to the Assyrians as the "Khumry" were deported to Armenia. Following this, in 687-650 BC, they then left Armenia and marched through Asia Minor to the Dardanelles. The Khumry at this time were called the Kimmeroi by the Greeks. Half the Nation went on to found Etruria around 650 BC, and the remainder sailed for Britain.
This leads us to the second major invasion of Britain around 504 BC from Western Asia Minor and this appears to have been a combined Trojan, Khumric, and Cornish immigration. The Khumric element were the same Khumry that the Assyrians called the Ten Tribes of Israel, and they actually appear to have been accompanied by members of the two tribes of Judea. These were highly civilized, culturally developed, literate and advanced metal working peoples.
Brutus - also known as Britt, Brwth, and Prydain - was the founder of Britain. The Islands were very likely named after the leader, Brutus.
By the 1st century AD, the name Albion refers unequivocally to modern Great Britain. The Pseudo-Aristotelian text De mundo has:
"the largest islands they reached were two, called the Britannic [isles], Albion and Iernē."
Albiōn (cf. Middle Irish Albbu) derives from the Proto-Celtic: Alb-ien-, sharing the same stem as Welsh: elfydd "earth, world". Together with other toponyms such as Alpes. The Latin word alba is the feminine singular form of albus, meaning white in English. The people of Albion would be denoted as the Albic tribes. However, if you go further back in history the root of the name becomes clear.
A major fleet invasion and subsequent further arrivals came into Britain under the leadership of Albyne, sailing from ancient Chaldean Syria around 1500 BC. (The date may be as late as 1350 BC and research to establish this is underway.). These Ealde Cyrcenas - Old Syrians are well attested in Mediaeval English Manuscripts. These were highly civilized literate, and advanced metal working people.
It is very possible the land was named Albion after the leader Albyne.
Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23 - 79), better known as Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History, likewise wrote:
"It was itself named Albion, while all the islands about which we shall soon briefly speak were called the Britanniae."
The arrival of the Germanic Tribes.
What we are taught about the histories of the United Kingdom as it is now known arrives through the Roman Catholic version of events, being half truths at best; history created as both propaganda, and corruption for an engineered conformity of the population, in support of the sovereign and corporate models. If the facts are examined without the confluence of these agendas to a predetermined conclusion, the story of the histories of the United Kingdom takes on a different complexion.
The Angles and the Saxons began to invade the southern counties of Britain, starting around 449AD. The Angles came from Schleswig-Holstein (the two duchies of Schleswig and Holstein), the northernmost of the sixteen states of Germany, while the Saxons were a confederation of old Germanic tribes.
They settled in southern Britain, as the Kingdom of the East Angles, the Kingdom of the Middle Angles, the Kingdom of the South Angles, which later became East Anglia (Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridgeshire, and part of modern Essex). The Saxons settled in the Kingdom of the East Saxons, the Kingdom of the West Saxons, the Kingdom of the Middle Saxons, and the Kingdom of the South Saxons (Middlesex, Sussex, Wessex and part of Essex). As you can see, this means they settled in southern Britain.
At the time they settled, the idea of England (Land of the Angles) had not been conceived by the indigenous peoples, as they were not Angles and knew their country as Albion. It is also the basis of the Scottish Gaelic name for Scotland; Alba. This strongly indicates the indigenous peoples identified the islands they inhabited as shared; no distinction was expressed in contrast to the German immigrant sovereigns - in league with the Roman Catholic Church, who wished to steal the islands of Albion from the indigenous peoples, as became evident in their actions from that point.
Charlemagne - Karolus Magnus
The beginning of the Roman Catholic conspiracy
Pope Gregory the Great (540 – 604 AD) is the first known to have simplified Anglii to Angli, which he did in an epistle. Angle is used as the root of the French and Anglo-Norman words Angleterre (Angleland, i.e. England) and anglais (English).
Charlemagne (Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus, meaning Charles the Great: 742–814) was King of the Franks from 768 to his death. He expanded the Frankish kingdoms into a Frankish Empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe.
In 799, Pope Leo III had been criminalised by the Romans, who tried to put out his eyes and tear out his tongue. Leo escaped, and fled to Charlemagne at Paderborn, asking him to intervene in Rome and restore him, which he did.
In the mind of this Pope, having a woman reigning as Emperor in Constantinople meant there was no living Emperor and the Pope took the extraordinary step of creating a new Emperor. The papacy had, since 727, been in conflict with Irene's predecessors in Constantinople over a number of issues, chiefly the continued Byzantine adherence to the doctrine of iconoclasm, the destruction of Christian images. From 750, the secular power of the Byzantine Empire in central Italy had been nullified.
By bestowing the Imperial crown upon Charlemagne, the Pope arrogated to himself the right to appoint the Emperor of the Romans, establishing the imperial crown as his own personal gift, but simultaneously granting himself implicit superiority over the Emperor, whom he had created. And because the Byzantines had proved so unsatisfactory for the Papacy, from every point of view — political, military and doctrinal — he would select a westerner.
Charlemagne continued the policy of his father towards the Roman Catholic papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in Italy, and waging war on the indigenous Spanish and Portuguese who embraced Islam within Spain. It was during one of these campaigns that Charlemagne experienced the worst defeat of his life, at the Battle of Roncesvalles (Northern Spain - 778), he also campaigned against the peoples to his east, especially the Saxons, and after a protracted war subjected them to his rule by forcibly converting them to Roman Catholic Christianity.
The Spanish and Portuguese transformation.
From 711 AD, the people of Spain had begun to follow Islam. After 45 years (756 AD) of guidance from the Muslims of Damascus the indigenous people established self administration.
The people of Portugal were part of the same transformation, slowly developing with their Spanish counterparts, known then as Al-Garb Al-Andalus, meaning The West of Paradise.
As early as 722 AD the Roman Catholics attacked these people, completely removing freedoms by 1249 AD - so complete a purge that the only mosque left partially standing within Portugal is in Mertola, and that was converted to a Roman Catholic church after the Reconquista (meaning re-conquest); an interesting use of the term, re-conquest meaning the Christian Roman Catholics had previously conquered these people and were re-establishing their subjugation.
This relentless unprovoked assault of the Roman Catholics on the peoples of Spain and Portugal lasted 516 years. The Reconquista was essentially completed in 1238 AD, when the only remaining Muslim state in Iberia, the Emirate of Granada, became a vassal of the Christian King of Castille. This arrangement lasted for 250 years until dishonoured by the Roman Catholics, who launched the Granada War of 1492 AD, which finally expelled all Muslim authority from Spain.Within the Iberian region the indigenous peoples establish the Pact of Umar (717AD), to protect those who were inclined to be Christian or Jewish or whatever they wished, so they could exist without conflict. It would not be unreasonable to conclude this same pact would have been established in Mercia, if indeed it too was transforming to an Islamic region, free of usury, sovereignty and a free society of equals.
Going back to the eighth century, King Offa came to the throne after a period of civil war and ruled Mercia (meaning: land of the border people) for 39 years (757 - 796 AD). He was a clever statesman, politician and organiser, being fair and kind-hearted in everything that he did. The wealth and security created by the people of Mercia with Offa’s custodianship had great influence, socially and culturally, throughout their land.
Mercia was split into seven small sub-regions and each of these was split again into many, many even smaller sub-regions. Each one functioned independently with local autonomy for each small sub-region, with King Offa as the King - not the Christian Kingly concept, but the Islamic Caliph (custodian) concept.
This is detailed in the 'Tribal Hidage' document established within Offa‘s reign; it presents the Islamic structure of small autonomous communities. The word ‘Hidage’ means unit, and describes a tribal unit.
If you go back to 54 BC modern archaeology suggests, the population of Britons at the time could have numbered as many as ten million. Caesar himself remarks that the population of Britain was huge, so the population of king Offa’s era would have been extensive [although it’s important to recall that the Romans had earlier exterminated much of the indigenous local population – Ed].
The system of allodial land rights (also an Islamic concept, but not exclusively) was in use throughout Mercia before William the Bastard (Conqueror) arrived in 1066 AD.
The legal system of Mercia under King Offa was completely free of any influence of Roman law. It was based on the original laws of the ancient tribes that settled Britain - those that migrated from the Continent, already possessing an elaborate and developed legal system. In general, if a crime was committed then there was a victim, and it was up to the victim - or the victim's family - or the community the family existed within, to seek justice. This is a form of natural law, as expressed within the Qur’an.
The Jesuit historians attempt to paint King Offa as a violent criminal King, as they contend that the people of Powys (a region of Wales), fought with their neighbours to the east, beginning in the 8th century; but the Welsh were able to thwart attempted invasions. This cannot be logically supported; if this was the case, why would King Offa have built a defensive dyke?
A massive bank and ditch was constructed, and survives today as a potent symbol of the ancient origins of both nations. The dyke was built as a defensible (if not heavily defended) earthwork specifically erected against the belligerent 8th century kingdom of Powys. It ran for 64 miles when originally constructed.
The question should be: why did the people of Cymru (Wales) only attack Mercia during Offa’s reign?
I contend the sovereign powers subjugating the welsh peoples were Christian vassals of the Roman Catholic empire, and it was through these insidious forces of manipulation that conflict was generated between these neighbours, leading to the dyke’s construction.
King Offa adapted and developed the ancient monetary model earlier revived by Pippin the Short, a system that was also adopted as the ‘Offa standard’ throughout the Frankish empire of Europe. It was implemented by Charlemagne, who abolished the monetary system based on gold, due to its shortage as a consequence of the dismemberment of the Byzantium Empire (Constantinople its centre) from Europe, and the ceding of Venice and Sicily with the loss of their lucrative trade routes.
This standardisation harmonised the array of currencies in use, simplifying trade and commerce.
Offa's silver penny was the forerunner of modern coins. These coins are remarkable for the beauty of their execution, far exceeding previous coinage in workmanship. Offa also minted gold coins; an example has survived that’s shown in the image below. It was discovered in 1841 C.E., and is displayed in the British Museum.
This coin is a simulation of the Muslim Dinar in circulation during the eighth century.The centre text reads "There is no Deity (God). (There is) Only Allah, The One, Without Equal, and Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah,’ and the further declaration, engraved around the margin of the coin; ‘Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah, Who sent him (Muhammad) with the doctrine and the true belief to prevail over every religion."
Obverse: The centre text reads "Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah” with the name of the King Offa Rex written upside down within that text. The text around the circumference reads "In the name of Allah. This (coin) was minted in 157 A.H." (157 A.H. corresponds to 773-774 C.E.).
This silver sterling coinage model remained in use in a steadily degrading form, throughout Britain until 1971. Initially a system based upon a pound ‘£’ in weight of pure silver (sterling) – a unit of both money and weight - a pound of silver was divided into 240 deniers (from the Latin ‘denarius - containing ten’, representing the modern penny, with reference to the existing silver coinage. There was also the scylling (modern shilling) worth five deniers), only the denier was a coin of the realm; no scyllings have been found from Offa’s time, but they are referenced in texts.
After Charlemagne's death, continental coinage degraded and most of Europe resorted to using the continually high quality English coins until about 1100.
The lending of money for interest was prohibited. This law was strengthened in 814, when Charlemagne introduced the Capitulary (decree) for the Jews - a justifiable prohibition on Jews engaging in money-lending (synonyms: Usury - Riba - Loan sharking - Modern banking); note that this prohibition was from the Emperor, not the Pope.
It seems that the 'Offa' of Mercia, whose origins are obscure, was born with an entirely different name and that Offa was rather his adopted name, chosen, one must presume, because it had some significance to the Albic Mercians of the time. One possibility is that the name was chosen in the tradition of most converts to Islam, who choose a new name to reference their transformation of mind. If we examine the Arabic, two possibilities are available:
Affa, meaning: to refrain
Awfa, meaning: Omen
The Christian historians connect the name Offa with the Anglo-Saxon, mythical king Offa, but in Latin the name Offa also means a 'ball of dough'. It would be logical to assume King Offa would not wish to adopt anything Anglo-Saxon, being neither, and the head of a Mercian Kingdom.
Another archaeological oddity within the conventional view of history, dating back to the ninth century, is the Ballycottin Cross. Found on the Southern coast of Ireland it is also worth mentioning. It is significant because, like Offa's coins, the cross also bears an Arabic inscription. Set in a glass bead is the word 'Bismillah', meaning 'A foundation for mankind', often mistranslated as ‘In the name of Allah’.
After King Offa’s death.
We are told Ecgfrith was the first Mercian king to receive a Christian consecration (made sacred) as part of his coronation - a Roman Catholic ritual, however unlikely this may sound. Consider the circumstances surrounding Offa’s son, whom Offa had groomed and tutored as his successor all his life; once in power he was murdered within months of Offa’s death and a Roman Catholic subjugator, King Coenwulf, was empowered. He duly paid the Pope for his services and influence with a massive gold tribute (extorted from the indigenous population) of 4380 gold coins, and a promise of 365 further gold coins yearly, justified in the name of the dead King Offa.
A letter written in 798 to King Coenwulf of the Mercians by Pope Leo III mentions an alleged promise made in 786 by King Offa to send 365 mancus to Rome every year. A mancus specifically refer to Islamic gold dinars: mancus derives from the Arabic word manqush, meaning 'struck'.
The use of the term mancus was widespread throughout Europe between the ninth and eleventh centuries. This ended with the destruction of the indigenous tribes of Albion around 1066.
Only a single example of a gold Mancus minted by King Offa exists, the surviving western specimens of early medieval gold coins must represent only a tiny proportion of the original stock. It must be borne in mind that before the thirteenth century gold coins were extremely rare in western Europe: in England, for instance, only eight native gold pieces with meaningful inscriptions are known from c. 650 to 1066, which can be complemented by finds from the same period of half a dozen Arabic gold and perhaps ten Carolingian gold pieces, or imitations of them. Substantial and regular production of gold coinage only resumed in the thirteenth century.
It seem that after King Offa, greed and stupidity reigned sovereign over Mercia as sovereign criminals began to erode the freedom King Offa had established. But only slightly; the population continued, for the most part, to reject Christianity.
Why would I say this?
In 1049 AD pope Alexander II declared William the Bastard’s (Guillaume le Bâtard - propagated by the Roman Catholics as William the Conqueror) marriage to the daughter of Baldwin of Flanders incestuous and among other penances he was forced to undertake was to go on a crusade - the first Crusade of the Papacy.
In 1066 William obtained a blessing for the conquest of England. Alexander II empowered William the Bastard with a Papal ring (A new ring is cast in gold for each Pope), the standard of St. Peter and a Papal edict to present to the English clergy. He also received a consecrated banner in support of the subjugation of Mercia (this banner signifies a solemn dedicated purpose of sacred religious sanctification (the establishing of something set aside for special use or purpose).William organized a council of wanton war at Lillebonne and openly began assembling an army of Mercenaries, criminals and aristocratic vermin in Normandy. Offering promises of stolen English lands and titles, he amassed a considerable invasion force. Quotas for the supply of ships imposed on the Norman nobility indicate a fleet of around seven hundred and seventy ships.
Over the next five years until 1071 war raged throughout Mercia. In addition, sovereign Kings periodically attempted to take sovereignty from William. The people of Mercia fought and were worn down as the promise of easy wealth emptied Europe of every low life and thief it held, to fight against the Mercian’s.
William employed a method of harrying the population, which entailed the destruction of every building, field, animal, person and possession. His mercenaries and the Christians from the surrounding kingdoms, now under William’s dictatorship, came across Mercia and after the land was burnt his men sowed the fields and land with salt, to stunt growth; after this treatment the land did not recover for more than 100 years. William is said to have eliminated the native aristocracy in as little as four years. He fell upon the English of the North like a raging lion, so that the area was depopulated and impoverished for many decades.
In 1083 his wife Matilda died, and William became even more tyrannical over the realm he brutally subjugated, with the aid of the Roman Catholic Empire.
The people suffered horrifically in a robber baron’s land of death; those that survived were starving, weak and defeated. William showed no mercy to children, women or men and this wholesale extermination continued until his death in 1087 AD.
The death toll is unknown, but the majority of the enormous population of Mercia disappeared. Due to the scorched earth policy, much of the land was laid waste and depopulated - a fact to which the Domesday Book, written almost two decades after William began his wars, readily attests.
The only logical reason Pope Alexander II would have wished to destroy the entire population of Mercia would have been if they were using the Muslim models which stand in opposition to the sovereign models. Any person who had enjoyed the freedom of these models of society would never consent to the insanity of Roman Catholic enslavement.
This is historically echoed by the Muslims within the Iberian region, who had to ultimately leave their ancestral homes, their businesses and heritage, and travel into a land they did not know to escape Roman Catholic persecutions and enslavement both physical and mental.
To this day the people of Mercia are slaves. We still suffer under the same constrictive controls. The minds of the people have been subjugated so deeply with the passage of almost a thousands years that they fail to comprehend their condition.
The feudal system has altered over time, but still functions. The rights of allodial ownership have continued to be denied to us and the Roman Catholic Crown still pulls the strings behind a wall of deceit. Our legal system has been replaced with Roman Law, our possessions leased back to us through taxation, our physical bodies the property of the Crown Corporation.
They condition and indoctrinate the population to not only be compliant to their dictates, but to be so subjugated that they enthusiastically force those around them to be just as compliant.
They have removed the coinage monetary system and replaced it with a fiat monetary system, resulting in a constant defrauding of the people; taxes expand while services decline, fiat money values constantly erode and so the burden builds - economically enslaved, mentally subjugated, socially isolated; has the Roman Catholic assault ever slowed or been reduced?
They educate only enough to allow function. They do not want the bulk of the people to see things clearly; a developed mind is a dangerous tool against an establishment of liars, thieves and subjugators - a criminal body in control of a dullard population.
William the Bastard
From Servant of the Light (Where you can find an updated version of this article) - http://servantofthelight.com/content/view/91/123/
From Servant of the Light
see also Melded Multiple Infinities
(all by Abdun Nur)
Xtra Images - http://www.worldology.com/Europe/images/decline_rome_angles.jpg
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